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**Percent Composition Percent = part / whole Example: MgO**

Find molar mass of whole compound: MgO = = 40.3 grams % Mg (by mass) = mass of Mg = g x 100 = 60.3% molar mass of MgO g % O (by mass) = mass of O = g x 100 = 39.7% molar mass of MgO g

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Empirical Formulas Gives the lowest whole-number ratio of elements and compounds in a formula 4 Steps: Change the percent to grams Convert grams to moles Divide each of the moles by the smallest number to find the ratio Round ratio to a whole number. If the ratio is not a whole number (ex. 1.5) multiply each element by 2 to get a whole number

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Examples A compound contains 94.1% Oxygen and 5.9% Hydrogen. What is its empirical formula? 94.1% = 94.1g O 5.9% = 5.9g H 5.9g H 1 mol H 1 mol O 94.1g O = 5.9 mol H = 5.88 mol O 16 g O 1 g H 5.9 5.88 5.88 = 1.003 (can round to 1.0) = 1.0 4) Ratio = 1:1 Formula = OH

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Examples A compound contains 67.6% Mercury and 10.8% Sulfur and 21.6% Oxygen. What is its empirical formula? 67.6% = 67.6g Hg 10.8% = 10.8g S 21.6% = 21.6g O 67.6g Hg = mol Hg 10.8g S = mol S 21.6g O = 1.35 mol O 0.336 0.338 0.336 1.35 0.336 = 1.00 Hg = 1.00 S = O 4) Ratio = 1:1:4 Formula = HgSO4

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Examples What is the empirical formula for a compound containing 70.0% Fe and 30.0% O? 70.0% = 70.0g Fe 30.0% = 30.0g O 70.0g Fe = 1.25 mol Fe 30.0g O = mol O 1.875 1.25 1.25 = 1.5 O = 1.00 Fe 4) Ratio = 1 : 1.5 5) Mult ratio by 2 = 2 : 3 Formula = Fe2O3

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Molecular Formulas Same as empirical formula, or a simple whole-number multiple of it Steps: Calculate the mass in grams of the empirical formula provided Divide the molar mass by the mass of the empirical formula Multiply this whole number ratio by the empirical formula

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Examples Calculate the molecular formula of the compound whose molar mass is 60.0g and empirical formula is CH4N. 1) CH4N = (1) + 14 = 30.0 g 60.0g 30.0g = 2.0 3) (CH4N) = C2H8N2

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Examples What is the molecular formula of ethylene glycol (CH3O), used in antifreeze. It has a molar mass of 62 g/mol. 1) CH3O = 31.0 g 3) 2.0 (CH3O) = C2H6O2 62.0g 31.0g = 2.0 Find the molecular formula of C3H2Cl, which is mothballs. Its molar mass is 147 g/mol. 1) C3H2Cl = 73.0 g 3) 2.0 (C3H2Cl) = C6H4Cl2 147.0g 73.0g = 2.0

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Molecular Formulas. An empirical formula shows the lowest whole-number ratio of the elements in a compound, but may not be the actual formula for the.

Molecular Formulas. An empirical formula shows the lowest whole-number ratio of the elements in a compound, but may not be the actual formula for the.

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