Chapter 13 Animal Behavior M. Elizabeth MLK 2005-2006
Review What is ornithology? The study of birds What are the six kingdoms of organisms 1.Archaebacteria - Prokaryote 2.Eubacteria - Prokaryote 3.Protista - Eukaryote 4.Fungi - Eukaryote 5.Plantae - Eukaryote 6.Animalia - Eukaryote
Classifying Kingdoms –King Philip came over for grape soda Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species –Naming species use the binomial nomenclature system: 2 names Genus species T. rex = Tyrannosaurus rex
13.1 What is an Animal? The Animal Kingdom Scientists have named over 1 million species of animals. Animals can be divided into two types of organisms: –Invertebrates: animals without a backbone More than 95% of all animals Insects, spiders, snails, jellyfish, sponges, worms, etc. –Vertebrates: animals with a backbone Less than 5% of all animals Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
Student Group Collaboration – Animal Examples List two animal examples of the following: 1.Arctic animals 2.Antarctic animals 3.Animals that crawl 4.Animals that fly 5.Animals without with no bones 6.North American animals 7.Animals that live in the soil 8.Ocean animals 9.Animals with more than four legs
Thats an Animal? Animals: – are multicellular – are eukaryotic without cell walls –usually reproduce by sexual reproduction Some like sponges and starfish can also reproduce asexually by budding and division –develop from embryos –have many specialized parts – tissues –move –are consumers (eat other organisms)
13.2 Animal Behavior Terms - Predator: hunt and kill their food - Prey: hunted animals that will be eaten if caught - Camouflage: blending in with background coloration - Innate behavior: does not depend on learning. - Learned behavior: must be learned from observation or experience - Migrate: travel from one place to another and then back again
Terms - Hibernation: a short winter period of metabolic inactivity. NOT sleeping - Estivation: a short summer period of metabolic inactivity, during the hottest part of the summer - Biological clock – internal control of natural cycles - Circadian rhythm – internal control of daily cycles - Navigate - to steer a course - Landmark – a fixed object that is used to navigate
Survival Behavior Looking for lunch – animals used many different methods to find or catch food: –Owls swoop from the sky to catch a mice –Bees fly from one flower to another to collect nectar –Animals have adapted to their surroundings so that they an obtain the most food using the least amount of energy
Survival Behavior How to Avoid Being Eaten –Predator animals eat prey animals. Predators must consider the danger involved with the catch – there may be another animal ready and waiting to kill the predator. Hiding Out –One way to avoid being eaten is to hard to see. Rabbits freeze to blend in better. Leaf insect example
In your Face – horns and spines Body Parts that signal trouble to a potential predators or competitors. –Bull horns –Rhino tusks –Porcupine spines Hidden dangers –Skunk spray –Bees, ants, and wasps inject a powerful acid into their attackers –Skins of American dart-poison frog or Papua New Guinea hooded pitohui (PIT-a-hooey) are colorful to warn of hidden danger. The hooded pitohui is the first poisonous bird discovered anywhere.
Researchers have found a beetle in the guts of the pitohui that carry high levels of the same toxin that fills the birds' feathers and skins -- Strong evidence that feeding on those beetles may give the birds their uniquely poisonous protection.
Why Do They Behave That Way Its in the Genes –Behavior that doesnt depend on learning or experience is called innate behavior. –Tendencies present at birth – how to swim how to chew or at maturity – bird singing. Animal School –Behavior that must be learned through observation or experience is called learned behavior. Humans speak but language is learned. The lack of learned behavior is why some young animals raised in captivity cannot survive in a natural environment.
Seasonal Behavior World Travelers – seasonal migration –Navigation using landmarks or magnetic fields (magnetite is a magnetic mineral) –Monarch butterfly Slowing Down –Hibernation in the winter: mice squirrels, skunks, and bears metabolism slows –Estivation in the summer when it is too hot: desert squirrels and mice The Rhythms of Life –Biological Clock – seasonal –Circadian Rhythm – daily clocks
13.3 Living Together Most animals interact with their same species Social behavior – is the term used for interactions between animals of the same species. The interaction can be cooperative or competitive but in either case communication is needed. Communication – is a signal that must travel from one animal to another.
Communication Helps animals: –Live together –Find food –Avoid enemies –Protect their home – mark their territory –Warn others of danger –Identify family members and friends –Frighten predators –Find mates – Courtship is a special behavior by animals of the same species that leads to mating via sexual reproduction
How do Animals Communicate Animals signal their intentions and information through: –Smell –Sound –Vision –Touch
Do you Smell Trouble Smell is transmitted via a chemical Chemicals used to transmit information via smell are called pheromones. Ants, very cooperative insects, secrete (release) a variety of pheromones. –Alarm chemicals are released into the air to alert other ants that there is danger nearby –Trail chemical are left along a path so that others can follow to find food and to return to the nest –Recognition chemicals are on an ants body to tell other ants which colony they are from (friend or foe)
Do You Hear What I Hear? Animals communicate by making noises –Wolves – howl –Dolphins and whales use whistles and complex clicking noises to communicate with one another –Male birds may sing in the spring to claim territory or attract a mate. Sound is a signal that can reach a large number of animals over a large area. –Elephants sounds that are so low pitched that humans cannot hear but elephants can up to several kilometers away.
Showing Off Many forms of communication are visual –Body language is how our body is positioned to share a feeling or thought –Bird preen –Mammals – mutual grooming –Trying to scare another animal will do something to make it appear larger. It may ruffle its feathers or fur or open its mouth and show its teeth
Part of the Family Some animals are solitary – tigers Most are social – lions –Lions live in groups called prides Benefits of living in a group –Safer: large groups can spot danger and cooperatively defend the group –Easier to find food: Solitary animals can kill only smaller animals while group predators that hunt cooperatively can kill prey much larger than themselves Downside of Living in a Group –Attract predators –Need more food –Can compete with each other for food and mates –Spread diseases
Chapter Review Questions 1. Natural bath sponges used to be living plants. True or False? 2. Which of the following lists contains types of organisms that are NOT animals? a. corals, birds, kangaroos b. dolphins, cactuses, whales c. spiders, humans, sponges d. sea anemones, fish, slugs
3. If the following organisms is an invertebrate write an I and an V if it is a vertebrate. _____ beetles_____ mammals _____ worms_____ spiders 4. The activities that animals perform, such as building homes and stalking food are called ____________. 5. Survival behaviors help animals find food, water, and a place to live, and help them avoid being eaten. True or False?
6. Animals use different methods in order to obtain the most ________for the least amount of _________ 7. Predators hunt and eat other _______, called prey. 8. How does the hooded pitohui bird defend itself from predators? a. Its bite injects a powerful acid into its attacker. b. It is covered in spines. c. It can spray a chemical that smells very bad. d. Its skin contains a toxin that can kill a predator.
9. Animals always know instinctively what to do. True or False? 10. Innate behavior cannot be changed. True or False? 11.The tendency of humans to speak is a(n) _____ behavior but the language we speak is a(n)________ behavior. 12. Which of the following does NOT happen during hibernation ? a. The animals heart rate drops. b. The animal survives on stored body fat. c. The animals temperature increases. d. The animal does not wake for weeks at a time.
13. Some desert animals experience an internal slowdown during the summer. True or False? 14. An animal with a skull and a backbone is __________. An animal with no backbone is ______________. (an invertebrate or a vertebrate) 15. A behavior that does not depend on experience is __________. (innate or learned) 16. In the summer, an animal enters a state of reduced activity. The animal is _________. (estivating or hibernating) 17. Daily cycles are known as ________________. (biological clocks or circadian rhythms) 18. When an egg and a sperm come together, they form ____________.(an embryo or an organ)
19. Some birds use Earths magnetic field a. to attract mates. b. to navigate. c. to set their biological clocks. d. to defend their territory. 20. __________ is not an example of how animals might deal with a food shortage. a. Migration c. Social behavior b. Estivation d. Hibernation 21. Reading is an example of a. an innate behavior. b. a behavior controlled by genes. c. a learned behavior. d. an inherited behavior.
22. All _________ lack a skull and backbone. a. vertebrates c. multicellular organisms b. Eukaryotes d. invertebrates 23. The use of _________ is an example of chemical communication. a. camouflage c. hibernation b. pheromones d. estivation