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Chemistry Chapter 5 The Periodic Law Mendeleevs Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Chapter 5 The Periodic Law Mendeleevs Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chemistry Chapter 5 The Periodic Law

3 Mendeleevs Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev

4 Modern Russian Table

5 Chinese Periodic Table

6 Stowe Periodic Table

7 Spiral Periodic Table A Spiral Periodic Table

8 Triangular Periodic Table

9 Mayan Periodic Table

10 Giguere Periodic Table

11 Orbital filling table

12 Periodic Table with Group Names

13 Easily lose valence electron (Reducing agents) React violently with water Large hydration energy React with halogens to form salts The Properties of a Group: the Alkali Metals

14 Properties of Metals Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity Metals are malleable Metals are ductile Metals have high tensile strength Metals have luster

15 Examples of Metals Potassium, K reacts with water and must be stored in kerosene Zinc, Zn, is more stable than potassium Copper, Cu, is a relatively soft metal, and a very good electrical conductor. Mercury, Hg, is the only metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature

16 Propertiesof Nonmetals Properties of Nonmetals Carbon, the graphite in pencil lead is a great example of a nonmetallic element. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals tend to be brittle Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature

17 Examples of Nonmetals Sulfur, S, was once known as brimstone Microspheres of phosphorus, P, a reactive nonmetal Graphite is not the only pure form of carbon, C. Diamond is also carbon; the color comes from impurities caught within the crystal structure

18 Properties of Metalloids Metalloids straddle the border between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table. They have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are more brittle than metals, less brittle than most nonmetallic solids Metalloids are semiconductors of electricity Some metalloids possess metallic luster

19 Silicon, Si – A Metalloid Silicon has metallic luster Silicon is brittle like a nonmetal Silicon is a semiconductor of electricity Other metalloids include: Boron, B Germanium, Ge Arsenic, As Antimony, Sb Tellurium, Te

20 Half of the distance between nucli in covalently bonded diatomic molecule "covalent atomic radii" Periodic Trends in Atomic Radius Radius decreases across a period Increased effective nuclear charge due to decreased shielding Radius increases down a group Addition of principal quantum levels Determination of Atomic Radius:

21 Table of Atomic Radii

22 Increases for successive electrons taken from the same atom Tends to increase across a period Electrons in the same quantum level do not shield as effectively as electrons in inner levels Irregularities at half filled and filled sublevels due to extra repulsion of electrons paired in orbitals, making them easier to remove Tends to decrease down a group Outer electrons are farther from the nucleus Ionization Energy - the energy required to remove an electron from an atom

23 Ionization of Magnesium Mg kJ Mg + + e - Mg kJ Mg 2+ + e - Mg kJ Mg 3+ + e -

24 Table of 1 st Ionization Energies

25 Another Way to Look at Ionization Energy

26 Affinity tends to increase across a period Affinity tends to decrease as you go down in a period Electrons farther from the nucleus experience less nuclear attraction Some irregularities due to repulsive forces in the relatively small p orbitals Electron Affinity - the energy change associated with the addition of an electron

27 Table of Electron Affinities

28 Ionic Radii Cations Positively charged ions Smaller than the corresponding atom Anions Negatively charged ions Larger than the corresponding atom

29 Summation of Periodic Trends

30 Table of Ion Sizes

31 Electronegativity A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons Electronegativities tend to increase across a period Electronegativities tend to decrease down a group or remain the same

32 Periodic Table of Electronegativities

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