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Chemistry Chapter 5 The Periodic Law.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Chapter 5 The Periodic Law."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry Chapter 5 The Periodic Law

2 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendeleev

3 Modern Russian Table

4 Chinese Periodic Table

5 Stowe Periodic Table

6 A Spiral Periodic Table

7 Triangular Periodic Table

8 “Mayan” Periodic Table

9 Giguere Periodic Table

10 Orbital filling table

11 Periodic Table with Group Names

12 The Properties of a Group: the Alkali Metals
Easily lose valence electron (Reducing agents) React violently with water Large hydration energy React with halogens to form salts

13 Properties of Metals Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity Metals are malleable Metals are ductile Metals have high tensile strength Metals have luster

14 Examples of Metals Potassium, K reacts with water and must be stored in kerosene Copper, Cu, is a relatively soft metal, and a very good electrical conductor. Zinc, Zn, is more stable than potassium Mercury, Hg, is the only metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature

15 Properties of Nonmetals
Carbon, the graphite in “pencil lead” is a great example of a nonmetallic element. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals tend to be brittle Many nonmetals are gases at room temperature

16 Examples of Nonmetals Microspheres of phosphorus, P, a reactive nonmetal Sulfur, S, was once known as “brimstone” Graphite is not the only pure form of carbon, C. Diamond is also carbon; the color comes from impurities caught within the crystal structure

17 Properties of Metalloids
Metalloids straddle the border between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table. They have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are more brittle than metals, less brittle than most nonmetallic solids Metalloids are semiconductors of electricity Some metalloids possess metallic luster

18 Silicon, Si – A Metalloid
Silicon has metallic luster Silicon is brittle like a nonmetal Silicon is a semiconductor of electricity Other metalloids include: Boron, B Germanium, Ge Arsenic, As Antimony, Sb Tellurium, Te

19 Determination of Atomic Radius:
Half of the distance between nucli in covalently bonded diatomic molecule "covalent atomic radii" Periodic Trends in Atomic Radius Radius decreases across a period Increased effective nuclear charge due to decreased shielding Radius increases down a group Addition of principal quantum levels

20 Table of Atomic Radii

21 Ionization Energy - the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
Increases for successive electrons taken from the same atom Tends to increase across a period Electrons in the same quantum level do not shield as effectively as electrons in inner levels     Irregularities at half filled and filled sublevels due to extra repulsion of electrons paired in orbitals, making them easier to remove Tends to decrease down a group Outer electrons are farther from the nucleus

22 Ionization of Magnesium
Mg kJ  Mg+ + e- Mg kJ  Mg e- Mg kJ  Mg e-

23 Table of 1st Ionization Energies

24 Another Way to Look at Ionization Energy

25 Electron Affinity - the energy change associated with the addition of an electron
Affinity tends to increase across a period Affinity tends to decrease as you go down in a period Electrons farther from the nucleus experience less nuclear attraction Some irregularities due to repulsive forces in the relatively small p orbitals

26 Table of Electron Affinities

27 Ionic Radii Cations Anions Positively charged ions
Smaller than the corresponding atom Anions Negatively charged ions Larger than the corresponding atom

28 Summation of Periodic Trends

29 Table of Ion Sizes

30 Electronegativity A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical
compound to attract electrons Electronegativities tend to increase across a period Electronegativities tend to decrease down a group or remain the same

31 Periodic Table of Electronegativities

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