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Aim: How can we compare metals, non-metals, and metalloids?

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Presentation on theme: "Aim: How can we compare metals, non-metals, and metalloids?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Aim: How can we compare metals, non-metals, and metalloids?
Do Now: Take out a calculator and reference tables. When a metal and a nonmetal bond, they form an ionic compound. In terms of atomic structure, explain what will happen to the metal and the nonmetal.

2 Answers to the Do Now:

3 How can we tell which elements are metals, metalloids and nonmetals?
The “stair – step” line on the periodic table divides the metals from the nonmetals. Metals are on the left of the line, and nonmetals are on the right of the line. The metalloids (which have properties of both metals and nonmetals) are located adjacent to the stair-step line. The metalloids include: Boron (B), Silicon (Si), Germanium Ge), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb), and Tellurium (Te).

4 Properties of Metals Physical State – Metals are solids at room temperature with the exception of mercury which is a liquid. Density – Most metals have densities greater than water with the exception of the metals in group 1 which will float. Where can we find proof of this? Examples: 3. Malleability – Metals have the ability to be hammered into a shape.

5 Properties of Metals 4. Ductility – Metals are ductile which means they can be drawn or pulled into a wire. 5. Luster – Metals are shiny. 6. Conductivity – Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. This property is caused by the mobility of their valence electrons. 7. Ionization energy and Electronegativity Values – Metals have relatively low ionization energy and electronegativity values. 8. Metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ions with smaller radii.

6 Transition Elements Groups 3-12 are called the transition elements (sometimes transition metals). These elements have several specific properties. Typically hard solids with high melting points. What is the exception? Transition elements are characterized by multiple oxidation states which means they have the ability to make various compounds. In general, transition elements are less reactive than elements in groups 1 and 2. Transition elements often form ions that have color. This is a property that is often used to identify them.

7 Properties of Nonmetals
Physical State – many are gases or network solids at room temperature. The exception is bromine which is a liquid at room temperature. An aside – What is a network solid? Network solids are atoms covalently bonded in a continuous network. There are no individual molecules just one big macromolecule shaped like a crystal. Examples include graphite, quartz, and diamond which are hard substances with high melting points.

8 Properties of Nonmetals
2. Ductility and Malleability - Non metals are not malleable or ductile. They tend to be brittle in the solid phase. 3. Luster – Solid nonmetals tend to lack luster and appear dull. 4. Conductivity – Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity (which means they are better insulators). 5. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form negative ions with larger radii.

9 Properties of Nonmetals
6. Some nonmetals can exist in two or more forms in the same phase. These forms are called allotropes. One example is oxygen which can exist as O2(g) and O3(g) . Both oxygen and ozone have very different physical and chemical properties.

10 Activity

11 Homework #

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