2Chapter 37 Immune System Section 1: Infectious Diseases Section 2: The Immune SystemSection 3: Noninfectious Disorders
3Pathogens Cause Infectious Disease Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesPathogens Cause Infectious DiseaseAn infectious disease is a disease that is caused when a pathogen is passed from one organism to another.Pathogens are the cause of infectious disease.BacteriaFungiVirusesParasitesProtozoans
5A disease reservoir is a source of the pathogen in the environment. Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesSpread of DiseaseA disease reservoir is a source of the pathogen in the environment.Reservoirs might be animals, people, or inanimate objects, such as soil.
6Humans are the main reservoir for pathogens that affect humans. Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesHuman ReservoirsHumans are the main reservoir for pathogens that affect humans.An individual that is symptom-free but capable of passing the pathogen is called a carrier.
7Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesAnimal ReservoirsOther animals also are reservoirs of pathogens that can be passed to humans.InfluenzaRabies
8Contaminated water or food Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesOther ReservoirsSoilContaminated water or food
9Transmission of Pathogens Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesTransmission of PathogensDirect contactIndirect contact through airVectorsIndirect contact by objects
10The virus damages tissues and even kills some cells. Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesSymptoms of DiseaseThe virus multiplies in the cells and leaves the cells either by exocytosis or by causing the cell to burst.The virus damages tissues and even kills some cells.Harmful chemicals or toxins might be produced.
11As outbreaks of diseases spread, certain patterns are observed. Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesDisease PatternsAs outbreaks of diseases spread, certain patterns are observed.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the World Health Organization (WHO) monitor disease patterns to help control the spread of diseases.
12Treating and Fighting Diseases Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Infectious DiseasesTreating and Fighting DiseasesAn antibiotic is a substance that can kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms.PenicilliumErythromycinNeomycinGentamicin
13Helps to prevent disease Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemNonspecific ImmunityThe body has a number of defenses in the immune system that fight off pathogens.These defenses are nonspecific because they are not aimed at a specific pathogen.Helps to prevent diseaseHelps to slow the progression of the disease
14Dead skin cells help protect against invasion by microorganisms. Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemSkin BarrierDead skin cells help protect against invasion by microorganisms.Bacteria that live symbiotically on the skin digest skin oils to produce acids that inhibit many pathogens.
15Saliva, tears, and nasal secretions contain the enzyme lysozyme. Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemChemical BarriersSaliva, tears, and nasal secretions contain the enzyme lysozyme.Lysozyme breaks down bacterial cell walls, which kills pathogens.Mucus acts as a protective barrier, blocking bacteria from sticking to the inner epithelial cells.
16Nonspecific Responses to Invasion Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemNonspecific Responses to InvasionThe body has nonspecific immune responses to pathogens that get beyond its barriers.Cellular defenseInterferonInflammatory response
17Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemCellular DefensePhagocytosis is the process by which phagocytic cells surround and internalize the foreign microorganisms.The phagocytes release digestive enzymes and other harmful chemicals from their lysosomes, destroying the microorganism.
18Virus-infected cells secrete a protein called interferon. Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemInterferonVirus-infected cells secrete a protein called interferon.Interferon binds to neighboring cells and stimulates these cells to produce antiviral proteins which can prevent viral replication in these cells.
19Inflammatory Response Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemInflammatory ResponseIncreased blood flow to the infected area makes blood vessels more permeable to allow white blood cells to escape into the infected area.
20Specific Immunity Lymphatic system Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemSpecific ImmunityLymphatic systemOrgans and cells that filter lymph and blood and destroy foreign microorganisms
21Lymphatic Organs Lymphatic tissue Lymphocytes Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemLymphatic OrgansLymphatic tissueLymphocytesLymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is produced in red bone marrow.PhagocytosisNeutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cells in humans, are short lived and initiate inflamation after injuryMacrophagesports medicine
23These lymphatic organs include Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemThese lymphatic organs includeLymph nodesTonsilsSpleenThymus glandDiffused lymphatic tissue found in mucous membranes of the intestinal, respiratory, urinary, and genital tracts
24Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemB Cell ResponseAntibodies are proteins produced by B lymphocytes that specifically react with a foreign antigen.B lymphocytes, often called B cells, are located in all lymphatic tissues and can be thought of as antibody factories.Visualizing Immune Response
25Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemB Cell ResponseThe activated helper T cell reproduces, binds processed antigens, and attaches to a B cell.The new helper T cells continue the process of binding antigens, attaching to B cells, and reproducing.
26Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemB Cell ResponseOnce an activated helper T cell binds to a B cell holding an antigen, the B cell begins to manufacture antibodies that specifically bind to the antigen.The antibodies can enhance the immune response by binding to microorganisms, making them more susceptible to phagocytosis and by initiating the inflammatory response, helping promote the nonspecific response.
27Helper T cells bind to and activate cytoxic T cells. Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemT Cell ResponseHelper T cells bind to and activate cytoxic T cells.Activated cytotoxic T cells destroy pathogens and release chemicals called cytokines. Cytokines stimulate the cells of the immune system.
28Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemPassive ImmunityTemporary protection occurs when antibodies are made by other people or animals and are transferred or injected into the body.
29Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemActive ImmunityActive immunity occurs after the immune system is exposed to disease antigens and memory cells are produced. Active immunity can result from having an infectious disease.Immunization is the deliberate exposure of the body to an antigen so a primary response and immune memory cells will develop.
31The response is more rapid than the primary response. Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemThe secondary response to the antigen has a number of different characteristics.The response is more rapid than the primary response.The overall response, both B and T cell response, is greater during the second exposure.The overall memory lasts longer after the second exposure.
32Some diseases can affect the immune system’s effectiveness. Chapter 37Immune System37.2 The Immune SystemImmune System FailureSome diseases can affect the immune system’s effectiveness.Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)HIV infects mainly helper T cells.The helper T cells become HIV factories, producing new viruses.The number of helper T cells in an infected person decreases.
33Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Noninfectious DisordersGenetic DisordersDiseases caused by the inheritance of genes that do not function properly in the bodyAlbinismSickle cell anemiaHuntington diseaseHemophilia
34Degenerative Diseases Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Noninfectious DisordersDegenerative DiseasesDegenerative diseases are the result of a part of the body wearing out sooner than would be expected in a person’s lifetime.ArthritisArteriosclerosis
35Metabolic disease results from an error in a biochemical pathway. Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Noninfectious DisordersMetabolic DiseasesMetabolic disease results from an error in a biochemical pathway.Type I diabetesCancerCancer is characterized by abnormal cell growth.
36Inflammatory Diseases Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Noninfectious DisordersInflammatory DiseasesInflammatory diseases are diseases in which the body produces an inflammatory response to a common substance.
40Form antibodies to their own proteins, which injures their cells Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Noninfectious DisordersAutoimmunityForm antibodies to their own proteins, which injures their cellsRheumatoid arthritisRheumatic feverLupusVirtual Pathology
41Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Immune SystemChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
42All bacteria and viruses cause disease. Chapter 37Immune SystemChapter Diagnostic QuestionsTrue or FalseAll bacteria and viruses cause disease.
44anthrax is harmful to humans a specific pathogen causes a specific Chapter 37Immune SystemChapter Diagnostic Questionsanthrax is harmful to humansa specific pathogen causes a specificdiseasepathogens can be grown in the laball bacteria are pathogens
45West Nile Virus is an example of a disease which is spread by _______. Chapter 37Immune SystemChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWest Nile Virus is an example of a diseasewhich is spread by _______.direct contactindirect contact by objectsindirect contact through the airvectors
46Which help keep pathogens from thriving and multiplying on your skin? Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Formative QuestionsWhich help keep pathogens from thrivingand multiplying on your skin?bacteriahistaminesnatural antibioticsred blood cells
47What is a disease reservoir? Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is a disease reservoir?the source of a pathogenthe organ the pathogen infectsthe medium that transmits the pathogenthe set of symptoms caused by thepathogen
48What are the most common vectors that transmit diseases? Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Formative QuestionsWhat are the most common vectors thattransmit diseases?arthropodsmammalschemical toxinstiny mucus droplets
49What is the source of most antibiotics? Chapter 37Immune System37.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the source of most antibiotics?bacteriafungiprotistsplants
50Which is true of nonspecific immunity? Chapter 37Immune System37.2 Formative QuestionsWhich is true of nonspecific immunity?It takes time to develop.It involves helper T cells.It is the first line of defense.It is the most effective immune response.
51Which substance kills pathogens by breaking down bacterial cell walls? Chapter 37Immune System37.2 Formative QuestionsWhich substance kills pathogens bybreaking down bacterial cell walls?cytokinehydrochloric acidinterferonlysozyme
52How do neutrophils and macrophages defend the body? Chapter 37Immune System37.2 Formative QuestionsHow do neutrophils and macrophagesdefend the body?they ingest bacteriathey produce antibodiesthey recruit lymphocytesthey secrete cytotokines
53Which white blood cells are the antibody factories? Chapter 37Immune System37.2 Formative QuestionsWhich white blood cells are the antibodyfactories?B cellsT cellscytotoxic T cellsmacrophages
54What can be injected into a person that will Chapter 37Immune System37.2 Formative QuestionsWhat can be injected into a person that willinactivate the venom from a snakebite orscorpion sting?antibodiescytokineslymphocytesmacrophages
55Noninfectious disorders can have both an Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Formative QuestionsTrue or FalseNoninfectious disorders can have both anenvironmental and a genetic cause.
56What is an abnormal inflammatory response Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is an abnormal inflammatory responseto an environmental antigen that is notpathogenic?an allergyan autoimmunityan anaphylactic reactiona metabolic response
57What causes anaphylactic shock? Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Formative QuestionsWhat causes anaphylactic shock?a large influx of antibodiesa massive release of histaminean extreme autoimmune reactiontoxic environmental agents
58What is the term for the formation of Chapter 37Immune System37.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term for the formation ofantibodies to the body’s own proteins?cancerleukemiaautoimmunityantipeptide disorder
59Identify the term used to describe a large Chapter 37Immune SystemChapter Assessment QuestionsIdentify the term used to describe a largeoutbreak of a disease in one area.endemicepidemicpandemicsystematic
60Explain how bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Chapter 37Immune SystemChapter Assessment QuestionsExplain how bacteria become resistant toantibiotics.Answer: If a bacterium contains a trait thatenables it to survive when anantibiotic is present, it will reproduceand pass that same survival trait toits offspring. This will create morebacteria also resistant to thatantibiotic.
62Which provides the strongest evidence that a specific Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhich provides thestrongest evidencethat a specificpathogen has beenidentified as thedisease agent?
63Host B also dies of the disease. Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeHost B also dies of the disease.Host B shows similar symptoms as host A.Culture B shows characteristics of a knownpathogen.Culture B shows the same characteristicas Culture A.
64How are most viral diseases fought? Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeHow are most viral diseases fought?with antibioticswith antiviral drugswith chemical agentsby the body’s immune system
65What is the most likely reason for bacterial Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the most likely reason for bacterialresistance to the antibiotic penicillin?The bacteria have been grown in pureculture media.The bacteria have weakened the affectsof penicillin.
66What is the most likely reason for bacterial Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the most likely reason for bacterialresistance to the antibiotic penicillin?The human population has doubled inthe last 30 years.Penicillin has been used to treat bacterialinfections since World War II.
67What is the main cause of aches and pains associated with the flu? Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the main cause of aches and painsassociated with the flu?The pathogen affects the nervous system.The pathogen invades and lives inside cells.The pathogen produces chemical toxins.The pathogen triggers an immune response.
68Which term best describes the function of interferon? Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhich term best describes the function ofinterferon?antigenatormessengersupportervirus-killer
69What is the purpose of immunization? Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhat is the purpose of immunization?to desensitize the immune systemto cause memory cells to developto destroy competing pathogensto stimulate interferon production
70What enables the secondary response to the antigen to be Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test PracticeWhat enables thesecondary responseto the antigen to bemore rapid andstronger than theprimary response tothe antigen?
71activated T cells antihistamines memory B cells secondary antibodies Chapter 37Immune SystemStandardized Test Practiceactivated T cellsantihistaminesmemory B cellssecondary antibodies