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CHAPTER 35 Immune System and Disease. 35.1  Infectious disease can be caused by viruses, fungi, bacteria, protists, and parasites.  Some diseases are.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 35 Immune System and Disease. 35.1  Infectious disease can be caused by viruses, fungi, bacteria, protists, and parasites.  Some diseases are."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 35 Immune System and Disease

2 35.1  Infectious disease can be caused by viruses, fungi, bacteria, protists, and parasites.  Some diseases are spread through coughing or physical contact with another person.  Some diseases are spread through contaminated water or food or infected animals.

3 35.1 Continued  Infectious diseases: occur when microorganisms cause physiological changes that disrupt normal body functions.  Germ theory of disease: microorganisms that were commonly called germs.  Koch’s postulates: rules that led Koch to develop rules for identifying microorganisms that cause a specific disease.  Zoonosis: any disease that can be transmitted from animal to human.  Vectors: carriers that transport pathogens.

4 35.2- Defenses Against Infection  The immune systems specific defenses distinguish between self and other, and they inactivate or kill foreign substances or cells that enter the body.  The specific immune response has two main styles of action- humoral and cell mediated immunity.  Nonspecific defenses include the skin, tears, inflammatory response, interferon's, and fever.

5 35.2 Continued  Inflammatory response: causes infected areas to become red and painful, or inflamed  Histamines: increase the flow of blood and fluids to the affected area.  Interferons: interfere with viral growth.  Fever: increased body temperature that occurs in response to infection.  Immune response: specific recognition, response, and memory.  Antigen: any foreign substance that can stimulate an immune response.  Antibodies: to tag antigens for destruction by immune cells.  Humoral immunity: depends on the action of antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymph.  Cell mediated immunity: depends on the action of macrophages and several types of T cells.

6 35.3- Fighting Infectious Disease  Vaccination stimulates the immune system with an antigen.  Antibodies produced against a pathogen by other individuals can be used to produce temporary immunity.  Antibodies can kill bacteria and some antiviral medications can slow down the viral activity.  The immune system produces memory B cells and memory T cells that speed up and strengthen the body's response to a repeated infection or disease.  Two major reasons for the emergence of new disease are the ongoing merging of human and animal habitats and the increase in the exotic animal trade.

7 35.3 Continued  Vaccination: injection of a weakened, or a similar but less dangerous, pathogen to produce immunity.  Active Immunity: immunity that develops as a result of natural or deliberate exposure to an antigen.  Passive Immunity: temporary immunity that develops as a result of natural or deliberate exposure to an antibody.

8 35.4- Immune System Disorders  A strong immune response to harmless antigens can produce allergies and asthma.  When the immune system attacks the body’s own cells it produces an autoimmune disease.

9 35.4 Continued  Allergy: trigger an inflammatory response causing mast cells to release histamines.  Asthma: is a chronic disease in which air passes narrow, causing wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing.


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