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EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 1 Observation Requirements for Global Biomass Burning Emission Monitoring J.W.

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Presentation on theme: "EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 1 Observation Requirements for Global Biomass Burning Emission Monitoring J.W."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 1 Observation Requirements for Global Biomass Burning Emission Monitoring J.W. Kaiser 1, M.G. Schultz 2, J.M. Gregoire 3, C. Textor 4, E. Bartholomé 3, M. Leroy 5, R. Engelen 1, A. Hollingsworth 1 1 ECMWF, Reading, UK 2 FZ Jülich, Jülich, Germany 3 JRC, Ispra, Italy 4 CNRS, Paris, France 5 Medias-France, Toulouse, France

2 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 2 OUTLINE Introduction Atmosphere Monitoring Land Monitoring Observation System Summary

3 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 3 INTRODUCTION: Biomass Burning (BB) in GMES GMES aims at designing and establishing a European capacity for the provision and use of operational services for Global Monitoring of Environment and Security. The FP6 IP GEMS develops the atmosphere monitoring system for GMES. The FP6 IP GEOLAND develops the land monitoring system for GMES. Biomass Burning (BB) is a major interface between both the atmosphere and land monitoring systems.

4 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 4 INTRODUCTION: Biomass Burning (BB) Emissions … AIR QUALITY: … can dominate regional air quality in severe air pollution events … can elevate background of atmospheric pollutant after long range transport [Stohl et al. 2001, Forster et al. 2001, Andreae et al. 2001] POLLUTION CONTROL: … significantly contributes to global budgets of several gases Kyoto, CLRTAP, … WEATHER: (absorbing aerosols) … influences the radiative energy budget [Konzelmann et al., JGR 1996] … provides cloud condensation nuclei [Andreae et al., Science 2004] Heat release accelerates deep convection. [Damoah et al., ACP 2006] REMOTE SENSING: … affects essential a priori information for remote sensing (AOD, profiles) CHALLENGE: … are highly variable on all time scales from hours to decades NOAA,

5 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 5 ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING: GEMS Objectives global operational system for monitoring & forecasting atmospheric composition global retrospective analyses several regional air-quality forecasting systems

6 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 6 ATMOS. MONITOR.: BB Observation Requirements Product Types: amount emitted: aerosol, trace gases location time injection height profile Availability: global ~25 km spatial resolution several hours to one day time resolution near-real time and retrospectively covering many years (>8a)

7 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 7 LAND MONITORING: Selected Objectives to model vegetation as part of the global carbon cycle quantitatively including carbon flux due to fire to characterise behaviour of land cover types with repeated fire events typical fire repeat period typical fire intensity typical fire seasonality … to monitor land cover change partially due to fire, e.g. tropical deforestation

8 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 8 LAND MONITORING: Fire Product Requirements Products: amount of biomass burnt type of vegetation burnt date of fire Availability Global level products 25x25km consistent multi-year time series (>10a) diurnal cycle seasonal distribution inter-annual changes

9 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 9 Two types of fire products accessible from Earth obs. systems Area burnt - Burnt area - Burnt pixel - Burnt scar BURNT AREA product Fire front - Active fire - Hot spot - Fire pixel - Fire count ACTIVE FIRE product OBSERVATIONS thermal emission, MIR only during fire spectrally flat BRDF flat dark only after fire

10 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 10 traditional: Fire Radiative Power (FRP): M(…) = FRP * time * scaling factor * emission factor(…) M (…) = Area. Biomass. Burning efficiency. Emission factor Globe: ~ 400 millions hectares burnt in 2000 Med. Basin: ~ hectares Dry tropical grass savanna: ~ 2 tons/hectare Moist tropical savanna: ~ 10 tons/hectare Boreal forest: ~ 20 tons/hectare Moist tropical forest: ~ 40 tons/hectare ~ 25% forest -- ~ 80% savanna Woodland & forests ~ 1600 g CO 2 / kg biomass Grasslands ~ 1700 g CO 2 / kg biomass Fuel: T. ha -1 ???? pixels burnt per vegetation type Area burnt per vegetation type: ha OBSERVATIONS: Calculating Emission Amounts

11 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 11 OBSERVATIONS: Existing Products (NRT) Active Fire Products yes/no-fire-product from: MODIS, AATSR (WFA), MSG, AVHRR (IGBP), TRMM-VIRS, SPOT-VGT (VGT2Africa) quantitative from: GOES-E/W (WF-ABBA), MODIS (FRP) Large fires may saturate MIR channel (~4μ). Small fires are not detected. Burnt Area from: AVHRR (GBA ), SPOT-VGT (GBA2000), AATSR (GLOBSCAR) Accurate emission products often require small pixel sizes (~500m) and calibration with even smaller pixel sizes, e.g. BIRD.

12 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 12 Some Conclusions on Fire Products No current product satisfies all requirements. LEO spatial coverage/resolution complements GEO temporal resolution. Hot spots (tropical forest) complement burnt area products. [C. Michel et al., JGR 2005] need regionalised approach Many existing products are inconsistent. [Boschetti et al. 2004] Several new operational products are anticipated. Fire Radiative Power from SEVIRI (M. Wooster) WF_ABBA from global GEO system (E. Prins) Burnt Area from MODIS (D. Roy) Burnt Area from VEGETATION (GDBAv1) Burnt Area from GEOLAND (BAG)

13 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 13 PROPOSE: Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) combining complementary satellite observations with land products and meteorology single, consistent processing for all GMES systems regionalised: events in mid-lat/boreal, statistics in tropics geoland, … GEMS satellite fire product satellite radiance land cover climatology fire climatology land cover product fire product Global Fire Assimilation System global fire emissions greenhouse gases reactive gases aerosols regional air quality carbon meteorology

14 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 14 SUMMARY Biomass Burning (BB) emissions are needed globally in near-real time as well as in consistent multi-year time series. No suitable BB emission product is available. Principal shortcomings are accuracy, delivery time, temporal resolution, geographical coverage. Various fire observations complement each other. We propose the development of a Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) to serve the GMES requirements. Product generation needs to exploit existing observations more completely. FRP is very promising due to accuracy of emitted amount calculation and temporal resolution.

15 EUMETSAT Met. Sat. Conf. 2006: Kaiser et al., Biomass Burning Emissions 15 MORE INFORMATION This work has been funded by the European Commission through the FP6 projects HALO, GEMS, and GEOLAND. THANK YOU! ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


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