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Federal Aviation Administration Radio Frequency Interference Mike Biggs Senior Engineer FAA Spectrum Engineering Services Spectrum Management Seminar.

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Presentation on theme: "Federal Aviation Administration Radio Frequency Interference Mike Biggs Senior Engineer FAA Spectrum Engineering Services Spectrum Management Seminar."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Federal Aviation Administration Radio Frequency Interference Mike Biggs Senior Engineer FAA Spectrum Engineering Services Spectrum Management Seminar Nairobi, Kenya September 18, 2007

3 2 Federal Aviation Administration What is Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)? ITU Definition: The effect of unwanted energy due to one or a combination of emissions, radiations, or inductions upon reception in a radiocommunication system, manifested by any performance degradation, misinterpretation, or loss of information which could be extracted in the absence of such unwanted energy. Criteria to mitigate inter-system interference are established as an element of ICAO SARPs. –E.g., 8 dB D/U for co-channel DME assignments

4 3 Federal Aviation Administration US RFI Yearly Activity Statistics 1995 Events = 1109 1995 Events = 1109 1996 Events = 1248 1996 Events = 1248 1997 Events = 1398 1997 Events = 1398 1998 Events = 1576 1998 Events = 1576 1999 Events = 1596 1999 Events = 1596 2000 Events = 1771 2000 Events = 1771 2001 Events = 1721 2001 Events = 1721 2002 Events = 1659 2002 Events = 1659 2003 Events = 1698 2003 Events = 1698 2004 Events = 1712 2004 Events = 1712 2005 Events = 1642 2005 Events = 1642 2006 Events = 1696 2006 Events = 1696 ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

5 4 Federal Aviation Administration RFI Categories Authorized Transmissions Authorized Transmissions Properly Licensed (i.e. FM, AM, TV) Unauthorized Transmissions Unauthorized Transmissions Wireless Video Cameras High Power Cordless Telephones Unlicensed Pirate FM Stations Spurious Intentional Intentional Unauthorized Jamming Phantom Controllers Unintentional Unintentional Spurious Transmissions ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

6 5 Federal Aviation Administration RFI Sources Citizens Band (CB) Radios (5 th harmonic) Citizens Band (CB) Radios (5 th harmonic) Paging Systems Paging Systems Stuck Microphone Transmissions Stuck Microphone Transmissions Cell phone Spurious Emissions Cell phone Spurious Emissions Electronic Attack (EA) Missions Electronic Attack (EA) Missions Power line Noise (Broadband Noise) Power line Noise (Broadband Noise) Anomalous Propagation Anomalous Propagation Atmospheric Conditions Atmospheric Conditions Amateur HAM Radio Amateur HAM Radio Land Mobile/Dispatch Land Mobile/Dispatch ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

7 6 Federal Aviation Administration US National Airspace System RFI ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007 Most Common Source of RFI: Most Common Source of RFI: Unauthorized Transmissions Pirate FM Broadcast Spurious Most Common FAA Victim: Most Common FAA Victim: VHF/UHF Voice Communications Most Difficult RFI to Resolve: Most Difficult RFI to Resolve: High Altitude Pilot Only Reported RFI Intermittent RFI (Airborne/Ground) Broadband RFI on Many Frequencies Phase Shift Keying RF Transmissions

8 7 Federal Aviation Administration US RFI Investigation Resources FAA Personnel and Organizations: FAA Personnel and Organizations: ATC Spectrum Engineering Services ATC Spectrum Engineering Services Headquarters Headquarters Technical Center Technical Center Command Center Command Center Frequency Management Officers (FMO) Frequency Management Officers (FMO) Technical Operations Service Areas Technical Operations Service Areas Aeronautical Center Aeronautical Center Technical Support Field Specialists (Technicians) Technical Support Field Specialists (Technicians) Aviation System Standards (Flight Inspection) Aviation System Standards (Flight Inspection) One International FIO One International FIO Six National FIOs Six National FIOs ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

9 8 Federal Aviation Administration Automated or Manual Full Equipment Suite DF Control/Mapping 20 - 3000 MHz Regional Used mainly by FMOs Most Complete Measurement System RFI Investigation Resources FAA Assets and Software Tools FAA Assets and Software Tools Radio Frequency Interference Monitoring (RFIM) Vans Radio Frequency Interference Monitoring (RFIM) Vans ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

10 9 Federal Aviation Administration 29 RFID Systems GPS DF Antenna L1 - 1575.42 MHz Regional Automated Vehicle mounted mobile DF Detection Band 20-2000 MHz Portable DF (RFID) ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

11 10 Federal Aviation Administration Regional Most Cost effective First choice instrument for technicians Approx. 300 K95-100 Systems GPS DF Antenna L1,L2,L5 VHF Yagi Antenna Directional Regional System Management Office (SMO) 33 Offices in the NAS K95-103 Detection Coverage 20 – 3000 MHz Typically 2 miles Handheld DF (K95-103) ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

12 11 Federal Aviation Administration DF Control/Mapping Operated Automation GPS DF Array & VHF DF Array L1,L2,L5 & 108 - 174 MHz AVN Flight Check NASE/RFI Program to assist in locating RFI/GPS sources First Choice when High Altitude PIREPS ONLY Airborne DF (OAR-4400) ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

13 12 Federal Aviation Administration FAA Assets and Software Tools FAA Assets and Software Tools Los Angeles (LAX), Chicago (ORD), New York (JFK), Miami (MIA) FAA Intranet Web based Graphical User Interface (GUI) Web Browser Control of Fixed DF and Spectrum Analyzer New York NIMDS Miami NIMDS Master IMDS Chicago NIMDS Los Angeles NIMDS National RFI Initiative ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

14 13 Federal Aviation Administration WEB IMDS Receiver Tuned Frequency DF Processor Bearing Averaging Triangulation Multiple Audio Playback Capability Synchronized Spectrum Analyzer Spectral View Interference Monitoring Detection System (IMDS) ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

15 14 Federal Aviation Administration WEB IMDS Triangulated Bearing Averages Overlay on Map Increases Fix Calculation Ellipse Accuracy Multiple Ellipse Calculation for Smaller Ellipse Mapping Triangulation ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

16 15 Federal Aviation Administration New IMDS Version 2.0 Control ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

17 16 Federal Aviation Administration Example Engineering Analysis Tools Automated Frequency Manager (AFM) Automated Frequency Manager (AFM) Flight Explorer Aircraft Situation Display (FE ASD) Flight Explorer Aircraft Situation Display (FE ASD) Space Loss Calculator (SPLC) Space Loss Calculator (SPLC) Spectrum Engineering Tracking System (SETS) Spectrum Engineering Tracking System (SETS) Various Government Database Systems Various Government Database Systems Government Master File (GMF) Government Master File (GMF) FCC Wireless Frequency Database FCC Wireless Frequency Database ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

18 17 Federal Aviation Administration Flight Explorer ASD Aircraft Situation Display (ASD) Traffic Flow of potential aircraft PIREPS RLOS Footprint Lowest Aircraft Altitude VENN Diagram Overlay Area ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

19 18 Federal Aviation Administration Propagation Loss Determine the potential signal levels received by Aircraft Analyze: Intermodulation FM Worksheet Site Specs Soil Conductivity Space Loss Calculator ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

20 19 Federal Aviation Administration Audio Detection Visual Intensities Used for Matching with known sources Audio Spectral Views Audio Spectrogram Analysis ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

21 20 Federal Aviation Administration Maintenance Management System Facility ID Start Date/Time Summary Cause Code 84 Code 7 RFI Events Logged ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

22 21 Federal Aviation Administration Facility ID Start Date/Time Summary NOCC Code 84 Code 7 RFI&GPS Events Logged Tracked & Updated Daily by FAA ASR Liaison Event Manager Reporting Tool ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

23 22 Federal Aviation Administration Commercial and Private Pilots Reporting Special aeroRFI Team Internet eMail Messaging aeroRFI – Internet Reporting ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

24 23 Federal Aviation Administration RFI/GPS Reporting Flow RCL/LMR NAV RFI ILSGPS RADAR RFI ENROUTETERMINAL NAS Services Impacted - Reported By Users MMS NAPRS Reports NOCC EM Reports Spectrum Engineering Tracking System (SETS) Intranet FAA Network Records Linked Linked NOCC Phone – eMail Reports aeroRFI Reports Private Pilots Network Liaison Reports Field Personnel Reporting COMM RFI ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007

25 24 Federal Aviation Administration Spectrum Engineering Event Tracker Open Active Events Report Search Code 84 RFI Events Fields Drop Down Selection for Search Execution ICAO Spectrum Management Seminar September 2007


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