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VISTA Vision of Integration Satellite Technologies into Aviation Presentation to ICAO ACP WG-C08 Munich, September 20th to 24th Dr. Jens Federhen
Page 2© Air Traffic Alliance Introduction 0
Page 3© Air Traffic Alliance ESA Study ATM Systems for 2020+: The expected role of satellites 250K, 6 months Very long time horizon –Assume that a paradigm shift in ATM will have taken place by 2020 –Assumption that specifications valid or under development today will no longer applicable Holistic (systemic) approach –Consider operational, technical, economical, and political issues –Consider not only space, but also terrestrial and airborne world –Consider C, N, and S Integrated approach –Include all stakeholders concerned (Airlines, Air Traffic Service Providers, Manufacturing industry, Research bodies; others: Airports, Standardisation bodies, Legal institutions,...) Consequences: –Free-minded environment –High level considerations only, i.e. broad but not detailed –High degree of uncertainty To be considered when using the word vision Nevertheless: –Long time period required for development, validation and deployment –Now is an opportunity not to miss for injecting views (because of e.g. Single European Sky, SESAME etc.)
Page 4© Air Traffic Alliance Consortium Eurocontrol Advisor European Space Agency Customer Air Traffic Alliance EADS Astrium Co-Prime Provide Space Know-How Thales ATM Co-Prime Provide ATM/CNS Know How Alcatel Space SDLS Review Lufthansa Cargo Provide Airlines Views DLR Provide Research Views DFS Provide ATSP Views
Page 5© Air Traffic Alliance Study logic Broad Study Topic, Need to include representatives of various stakeholder groups Short duration, Low budget Study centred around a series of workshops with all experts around one table Role of satellites in ATM systems for Task 1: ATM Methodology & Systems Baseline until 2012 Task 2: Potential contributions of Space Systems Task 3: Vision of an ATM System for ATM KOM WS #1 WS #2 Vision & scenario skeletons ATM Trade-Offs, Integr. Solutions, Standards & Reqs. Transition schemes, Impact assessment WS #3 11 SEP 0317/18 NOV 0310/11 DEC 03 03/04 MAR 04 TN 1TN 2TN 3Final Rept.
Page 6© Air Traffic Alliance Task 1 1 ATM Methodology & Systems Baseline until 2012
Page 7© Air Traffic Alliance Task 2 2 Potential contributions of Space Systems
Page 8© Air Traffic Alliance Task 2 2a Long-term developments in space systems for ATM
Page 9© Air Traffic Alliance Typical design variablesIssues Most critical: User link Bandwidth Rain attenuation Global accessibility (Radio Regulations) Technology maturity GEO vs. Non-GEO Imperatives Cheaper, smaller, lighter, … Limit number of antennas on aircraft Avionics-specific design issues Certifiability & Standardisation Integration with other aircraft systems Satellite antenna Digital on-board processor Aircraft avionics (AES) Satellite orbits & constellations Frequencies Satellite payload Satellite platform Launch considerations Long-term developments in space systems for ATM Messages Very difficult regulatory situation! Only bands <10MHz suitable if service is to be used below clouds HF/VHF/UHF (<1GHz): either technically not suited or not accessible L (1-2GHz): well suited but high density of other services S (2-4GHz): very similar to L band but little spectrum available for aero satcom C (4-6GHz): MLS band X (6-10GHz): blocked by military No ideal solution GEO shortcomings: propagation delay (conceivable for voice, thus need for extra training; danger of long waiting times for data services, e.g. if protocol requires handshake), echo, no coverage on polar caps NGSO shortcomings: very few piggyback options, need for many satellites, poor commercial performance of existing satcom constellations, difficulties to realise regional solutions Avionics roadmap is dependent on: Availability of in orbit satellites and their services Assessment of airlines and business jet operators wanting those services AES drives satellite system design! Technologies are mature No ATM-specific modifications needed ATM will simply benefit from improvements that happen steadily
Page 10© Air Traffic Alliance Impact of mobility requirement on link performance Service Fixed Land Mobile Antenna Ku-Band (11000 MHz) L-Band (1500 MHz) HPBW 2.4° 80° Gain 37.7dBi 7.3dBi Ca. 30 dBi (Factor 1000 In power!) Difference: Mobility requirement costs 30dBi in link margin (factor 1000 in power)! 0,00 20,00 40,00 60,00 80,00 100,00 120,00 140,00 160,00 0,10,30,50,70,91,11,31,5 Diameter [m] HPBW [°] MHz MHz 0,00 5,00 10,00 15,00 20,00 25,00 30,00 35,00 40,00 45,00 Antenna Gain [dBi] (Antenna efficiencies: 55%) Mobility requirement: Aircraft cannot stop for data transmission Manoeuvrability of aircraft (banking) must be maintained without interrupting satellite link Low antenna gain cannot simply be compensated by increased RF power or lower receiver system noise temperatures High-gain tracking antenna Antennas with mechanical pointing mechanisms are large and expensive Electrical phase array antennas need more R&D to lower prices Mobility has impact on network, too (e.g. handover)
Page 11© Air Traffic Alliance Availability issues ATM is particularly sensitive to satellite availability –Single most important issue when considering SatCom for ATM A defective satellite in orbit can only be replaced, not repaired. Satellites are built according to very demanding standards Experience of the past 20+ years: –If the satellite begins its operational life satisfactorily it will continue operating satisfactorily for years with none or few service outages. Redundancy scenarios –No spare satellite –Ground spare satellite –Cold in-orbit spare satellite –Hot in-orbit spare satellite Trade-off between cost and dependence on the satellite system
Page 12© Air Traffic Alliance Cabin communications Assumption: By 2020, cabin communications systems can be made sufficiently reliable to be used for ATM communications –physically robust lower network link layers –operational means (firewalls, prioritisation) Pro: –Large bandwidth –No additional antenna on-board the aircraft –Cost paid by passengers Contra: –Shared business case (Example: Iridium) –Remaining safety & security concerns (however: Current VHF-AM comms are not secure at all) –Not all aircraft equipped with passenger comms: Cargo aircraft, small aircraft –If Ku-Band: not working in all weather conditions –Proprietary standards
Page 13© Air Traffic Alliance Inmarsat: History & apparent trends Higher antenna gain, higher satellite power level –Physical limit for satellite antenna diameter: about 30 m More complex digital processors –Regenerative payload? >On-board re-modulation of signals prior to onward transmission >Additional 3 dB on link budget >Increased power and added complexity Introduction of data (instead of voice) services Inmarsat 1 (late 1970s) Low-gain antenna Transparent transponders Power: ca. 1kW Service outages due to platform Inmarsat 2 (1980s) Major advances in platform (1st Eurostar) Phased array antenna (diameter: 1m) Still backup for Inmarsat 3 Inmarsat 3 (1990s) Major advances in payload 8 spot beams Higher data rates Inmarsat 4 (from 2006+) 200+ spot beams Digital processor High-gain antenna (reflector diameter 9m)
Page 14© Air Traffic Alliance Task 2 2b Long-term developments in ATM
Page 15© Air Traffic Alliance ATM Functional Blocks *) Trends More automation More collaboration 4D Trajectories ADS Emphasis on capacity Gate to Gate More collaboration 4D Trajectories More integration More flexibility More dynamism Reduced separation minima Re-Distribution of responsibilities Increased automation Air/air communications Increase capacity Integration with air transport network Collaborative processes All weather capabilities Better guidance and control More integration (SWIM) More collaboration Better data Airspace Organisation Demand & Capacity Mgmt. Traffic Mgmt. Separation Mgmt. Airport Throughput Information Mgmt. Procedure *) Source: Eurocontrol/AECMA ATM Master Plan Potential Contribution of Space Technologies Trajectory negotiation, ADS, and clearances require a data link Satellite technologies appear well-suited for en-route traffic, particularly in oceanic and remote areas but possibly in high-density airspace, too Terrestrial technologies suggested around airports Strategic rather than tactical (i.e. before rather than during the flight) > No direct impact on satellite technologies (except possibly FSS for ground-ground) Interface to traffic management (4D trajectory negotiation) Flexible and dynamic airspace organisation require additional communication Integration requires uniformity of CNS infrastructure Satellite technologies appear well-suited for en-route traffic, particularly in oceanic and remote areas but possibly in high-density airspace, too Terrestrial technologies suggested around airports Greater navigation accuracy enabled through satellite navigation Highly reliable air/air communications not so well suited for satellite (better: line-of-sight communications) Ground-to-air broadcast services to assist separation (e.g. TIS-B) are very well suited for satellite Augmented (GBAS) satellite navigation Most changes on and around airports will not be enabled through satellite technologies Terrestrial communications means appear better suited (satellite may be backup) Airport should not be the driver for satellite systems engineering Possibility of new information broadcasting services (traffic situation, NOTAMS, weather, …) Common & distributed databases updated and synchronised by fixed satellite systems in some regions of the world
Page 16© Air Traffic Alliance Task 3 3 Vision skeletons of a satellite- enhanced ATM System for 2020+
Page 17© Air Traffic Alliance ATM stakeholders in Today's stakeholder groups likely to still exist in 2020+, yet some will dramatically change the way they operate: –Trend towards application of commercial rules, corporatisation, privatisation –Trend towards internationalisation Users –Airlines (passengers & cargo) –Military aviation –Business aviation –General aviation Service providers –ANSPs / ATC service providers –C, N & S Infrastructure operators Airports Legal bodies –Intergovernmental organisations –National legislation –National authorities Standardisation bodies
Page 18© Air Traffic Alliance ATM/CNS infrastructure for Will still comprise C, N, and S –Dependent surveillance is using C & N –Primary surveillance still required (infrastructure possibly thinned out) Will still comprise various C/N/S systems –Interoperability would have positive effect on safety, too >Some systems may be reliable enough to be sole means (depends on RCP, RNP, RSP, RTSP) >Choice of primary means dependent on airspace type and traffic situation –For political reasons, various world regions will not accept to be dependent on others –Technically, no system is equally suited for different airspaces & traffic patterns
Page 19© Air Traffic Alliance Communications (1) Various candidate communications media –VHF (today sole comms means) –SatCom –Mode S –Possibly others, but only as requested by users (airlines) No HF any more? –Polar caps Seamless communications –Transparent & automatic choice of >Communications media >Frequency –Pilot and controller should not perceive any difference between the various communications means ATN-Bild
Page 20© Air Traffic Alliance Communications (2) Work Share between terrestrial and satellite communications: –SatCom primary means for basic load air/ground communications >Oceanic and remote airspace VHF air/air as backup instead of HF ? >En-route –Terrestrial = primary means for air/ground communications in hot spots (TMA) >Less range and faster access to communication required –Terrestrial (line-of-sight) = primary means for air/air communications Possibly not the same conclusion for voice and data link
Page 21© Air Traffic Alliance Communications (3) Voice will remain, but used less often than today –Should voice be provided over satellite? >Why not? >If satellite is there, it could provide a (digital) voice service, too –Should voice service comprise party line feature? >Technically feasible, user community needs to formulate the requirement
Page 22© Air Traffic Alliance Commercial trade-offs Aviation must ensure reasonable data traffic volume for SatCom to reach critical mass and ensure commercial viability. SatCom system must ensure that operational benefits of satellite technologies must be quantifiable and big enough to justify airline investments in SatCom. Further incentives for introduction of satellite services? Strict safety requirements Niche market particularities High cost pressure
Page 23© Air Traffic Alliance Difficulty of open standard for ATM SatCom choice? Users choice Satellite Operators Service Providers Hardware Manufacturers NGSS ? Big differences amongst current SatCom systems ! Open standard ensures –Interoperability –Competition amongst service providers and hardware manufacturers –Choice and attractive prices to end customers Particularities of ATM SatCom market –Small –Demanding (technically as well as commercially)
Page 24© Air Traffic Alliance Transition issues 4
Page 25© Air Traffic Alliance Conclusions 5
Page 26© Air Traffic Alliance Will satellites play a role in ATM systems for 2020 and beyond? Yes! –Navigation: No doubts that GNSS will be used –Communications: Some important questions still open, but: >New operational concepts will require additional (data) communications >Satellites are particularly well-suited for those concepts requiring Global seamless coverage Additional bandwidth Broadcast capabilities –Surveillance: ADS will create additional communications demand –Well-balanced integration of terrestrial and satellite technologies is needed >Must make sense to ATM stakeholders as well as satellite community More work is needed: (1) define demand and (2) prepare the grounds (systems engineering, standardisation, regulation, commercial …)
Page 27© Air Traffic Alliance What needs to happen next? Space community to participate in current and future initiatives to define the ATM system for Find most suitable business model Find optimum technical solution Secure spectrum Advance standardisation Demonstrate satellite capabilities (e.g. in-flight trials)
Page 28© Air Traffic Alliance Thank you for your attention! Any Questions? Dr.-Ing. Jens Federhen Marketing Manager Air Traffic Alliance c/o EADS Astrium GmbH D München Tel : (0) 89 / Fax : (0) 89 / Mobile: (0) 175 /
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