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Exceptions & Limitations and Access to Knowledge Hala Essalmawi Attorney at law & IPR officer Bibliotheca Alexandrina.

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Presentation on theme: "Exceptions & Limitations and Access to Knowledge Hala Essalmawi Attorney at law & IPR officer Bibliotheca Alexandrina."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exceptions & Limitations and Access to Knowledge Hala Essalmawi Attorney at law & IPR officer Bibliotheca Alexandrina

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3 The Old Library of Alexandr ia

4 The Arab/Islamic Civilization A number of distinct features of the modern library were introduced in the Islamic world, where libraries not only served as a collection of manuscripts as was the case in ancient libraries, but also as a public library and lending library, a centre for the instruction and spread of sciences and ideas, a place for meetings and discussions, ….. The concept of the library catalogue was also introduced in medieval Islamic libraries, where books were organized into specific genres and categories. Micheau, Francoise, "The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East", in (Morelon & Rashed 1996)

5 Access and Restriction s Access to KnowledgeCivilization Restrictions Decline

6 The Genesis of IP Laws Ex oriente lux, ex occidente lex. (From the East came the light, from the West law.) George Sarton,The Life of Science. Henry Schuman, New York.

7 Access to Knowledge Access to Knowledge issues gained momentum during the past few years. Hence, Access issue has became a pressing item on the agenda of many states and stakeholders both in developing and developed countries.

8 A step Before A2K Difficulties facing developing countries to Access Do they have the infrastructure to Access the printed and digital resources

9 Access and Disseminate Knowledge Options: Exceptions & Limitations (E&L) Alternatives: e.g. FOSS & CC

10 E&L in International Conventions - The Berne Convention (1886) - The TRIPS Agreement (1994) - WIPO Copyright Treaty (1996)

11 Temporal Limitation The term of Protection: -Copyright Protection is limited in time. - International standard: Life of the Author + 50 years. (BERNE & TRIPS)

12 Free Uses - Certain acts may, in circumstances specified in the law, be done without the authorization of the copyright owner - Examples: reproduction of a work exclusively for the personal and private use making quotations from a protected work (provided that the source of the quotation is mentioned and that the extent of the quotation is compatible with fair practice)

13 Compulsory License The Paris Appendix (1971) of the Berne Convention permits developing countries to issue compulsory licenses for the reproduction of copyrighted material for use in relation to certain systematic instructional activities and for the translation of copyrighted material into a language of general use in the authorizing country.

14 Article 13 of TRIPS (Article 9 (2) of Berne) Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder

15 WIPO Copyright Treaty Extends E & L into the Digital Environment (Article 10)

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17 Recent Developments the Global Level Development Agenda in WIPO 2004 (the 45 Recommendations on 2007) Chiles proposal on E and L at WIPOs Standing Committee on Copyright 2005 Many studies in E & L (WIPO studies)

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20 WIPO Director General opening statement Assemblies of the Member States of WIPO, Gen. 22 Sep The question is not so much the objective of the system, but the means of achieving that objective amid the convergence of the digital environment. The evidence suggests that the current means are suffering severe stress. In the case of music, for example, according to industry estimations, 40 billion files of music were illegally file-shared on the Internet in 2008, a piracy rate of 95%.

21 An Upside to Copyright Infringement Valuable business outcomes may be achieved as a result of the infringement: 1.The distribution of material on YouTube from the late- night variety show Jimmy Kimmel Live garnered millions of views of posted content, and following some posts, increased viewership of Jimmy Kimmel Live on ABC by as much as 15 to 20%. 2.At the end of March 2009, Walt Disneys television division announced it had developed plans to distribute content on YouTube. 3.Copyright holders may find that they can transform the infringement into opportunities they would never have otherwise envisioned. Source:

22 Alternatives This is why beside the E&L we need to promote and encourage the New tools to Access and disseminate Knowledge.

23 © V. S. All rights reserved No rights reserved © Legal Illegal Absolute Control Enforcement No Control Violation Some rights Reserved Reasonable Copyright Legal

24 Source: content on this site is licensed under a CC attribution 3.0 License Approximate Minimum Total CC Licensed Works as of July 2008:~130milion

25 Approximate Minimum Total CC Licensed Works as of July 2009: ~250 million Source: content on this site is licensed under a CC attribution 3.0 License

26 Final Remarks Recommendations: Awareness, have a comprehensive policy for Education and Libraries to promote A2K BA A2K project Activities: Seminars, workshops, publications, translated materials, etc…..

27 Alexandria A2K Seminar New Tools for the Dissemination of Knowledge and Promotion of Innovation and Creativity 6-8 Sep.06 Objectives Recommendation Follow up

28 Intellectual Property And New Tools For The Dissemination Of Knowledge

29 Patent: Impact on Developing Countries

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31 Intellectual Property and The Digital Age

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37 Thank you!


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