Presentation on theme: "Ministry of Foreign Affairs"— Presentation transcript:
1Ministry of Foreign Affairs Copyright Law and Exceptions and Limitations for the purpose of Education and Access to KnowledgeAhmed Abdel LatifMinistry of Foreign AffairsWorkshop on Intellectual Property and New Tools for the Dissemination of KnowledgeBA-IDLOMay 2007
2Copyright Protection Copyright Protection aims at: Providing incentives for creativity by granting authors a number of exclusive rightsBalancing the rights granted to authors with the public interest of society at large (Exceptions and Limitations)
3Copyright Law International Conventions Egyptian National Law - The Bern Convention (1886)- The TRIPS Agreement (1994)- WIPO Copyright Treaty (1996)Egyptian National Law- Law 82 (2002)
4Limitations on Copyright (I) A) Temporal Limitation- Copyright Protection is time bound- It begins with the creation of the work and continues until some time after the death of the author in order to enable the author’s successors to have economic benefits after the author’s death- International standard: Life of the author + 50 years
5Limitations on Copyright (II) B) Geographic Limitation- The owner of a copyrighted work is protected by the law of a country against acts restricted by copyright law which are done in that county- For protection against acts done in another country , he must refer to the law of that country- Membership of both countries in international copyright conventions helps settle practical problems arising from geographic limitation
6Exceptions to Copyright (I) A) Exclusions from copyright protection :Ideas, procedures, methods of operation or mathematical concepts as suchNews of the dayWorks that are not fixed in material formThe text of laws and decisions of courts and administrative bodiesNon-original databases
7Exceptions to Copyright Protection (II) B) “Fair use”- Certain acts may, in circumstances specified in the law, be done without the authorization of the copyright owner- Examples:* reproduction of a work exclusively for the personal and private use* making quotations from a protected work (provided that the source of the quotation is mentioned and that the extent of the quotation is compatible with fair practice)
8Exceptions to Copyright Protection (III) C) Public communication when the use is justified by an informatory purpose- The laws of some countries permit the broadcasting of protected works without authorization provided that fair remuneration is provided to owner of the copyright
9Exceptions to Copyright Protection (IV) D) Compulsory License- The Paris Appendix (1971) of the Bern Convention permits developing countries to issue compulsory licenses for the reproduction of copyrighted material “for use in relation to certain systematic instructional activities” and for the translation of copyrighted material into a language of general use in the authorizing country
10Importance of E and L to Developing Countries The Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (2002)“…access to books and learning materials is still a real problem in many developing countries …In order to improve access to copyrighted works and achieve their goals for education and knowledge transfer, developing countries should adopt pro-competitive measures under copyright laws. Developing countries should be allowed to maintain or adopt broad exemptions for educational, research and library uses in their national copyright laws.”
11E and L in International Conventions Article 13 of TRIPS/ Article 9 (2) of Berne“Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder”
12Three Step Test (1)1) Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases- Copies made for the purposes of scholarly and private use- Media uses for currents events or news of the day- Uses in educational institutions, including for teaching- Teaching- Quotation
13Three Step Test (2)2) which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work- Exceptions are limited to non-commercial uses- Copies made for this purpose will not be sold in the market
14Three Step Test (3)3) and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder- An exception which caused “unreasonable loss” would prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder- Need of case by case analysis
15WIPO Copyright Treaty Extends E and L into the Digital Environment According to Article 11, Contracting Parties must provide “adequate legal protection and effective legal remedies against the circumvention of effective technological measures that are used by authors in connection with the exercise of their rights”
16Recent Developments the Global Level “Fair use” and Technological Protection Measures (TPMs)Development Agenda in WIPOChile’s proposal on E and L at WIPO’s Standing Committee on Copyright
17Law 82 (2002) Article 141: (Exceptions) Protection shall not include mere ideas, procedures, methods of process, manners of operation, concepts, principles, explorations, and data; even if expressed, described, illustrated or included in a work.Protection shall not include:First : Official documents, whatever the source or target language thereof, including legal texts, regulations, decisions, international agreements, judicial rulings, arbitral awards, judgments issued by administrative committees of judicial competence.Second: News of incidents or current events having the character of mere items of press information. Nevertheless, the above items shall be protected if characterized by innovation in order, display or by any personal effort eligible for protection.
18Law 82 (2002) Article 148 (Translation) - Protection granted to the copyright and the right of the translator of the work thereof into another foreign language, with respect to the translation of such work into the Arabic language shall terminate, unless the author or the translator assume such right directly or through an intermediary, within three years calculated from the date of first publication of the original or translated work
19Law 82 (2002) Article 170 (Compulsory License) - Any person may demand the competent Ministry to grant such person a personal license for reproducing and /or translating any protected work pursuant to the stipulations of the law herein, without having the author's permission, for the purposes set forth in the following paragraph. The grant of such license shall be against payment of fair compensation to the author or his successors. Such license shall not contradict with the normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author or the copyright holders.- Licenses shall be granted, pursuant to a justified decision in which the time and place limits thereof are specified; and for the purposes of fulfilling the requirements of all kinds and levels of education.T The executive regulations of the law herein shall define the conditions and terms stipulated for granting licenses, as well as the categories of the due fees, which shall not exceed one thousand Egyptian pounds for each work.
20Law 82 (2002 Article 171 (Fair Use) First: Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author, pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, the author may not prevent third parties, after the publication of his work, from undertaking any of the following acts:First:Performance of a work in meetings with family members or pupils in an educational institution, so long as such performance has been without direct or indirect financial consideration.Second:Reproducing one single copy of the work to be used by the reproducer himself, provided that such reproduction does not contradict with the normal exploitation of the work and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author or the holders of copyrights. Nevertheless, the author or his successors may prevent third parties, after the publication of his work, from undertaking any of the following acts, without permission therefrom:- Reproducing, photographing or copying fine, applied or plastic arts, unless existing in public, or is an architectural work;- Reproducing or copying all or a substantial part of a musical note.- Reproducing or copying all or a substantial part of computer database or software.
21Egyptian Law: Law 82 (2002)Fourth:Conducting analytic studies of the work or parts or quotations therefrom, for the purpose of criticism, discussion or media.Sixth:Reproducing extracts of a work in the form of manuscripts or audio, visual, or audio- visual recordings, for the purposes of teaching for illustration or explanation, with the provision that: i) Reproduction shall be within the reasonable limits; ii) Reproduction shall not surpass the purpose thereof; and iii) mention shall be made of the name of the author and the title of the work on all copies of the works, whenever possible.Seventh:Reproducing an article, short work or a derivative of a work, if necessary, for the purposes of teaching in educational institutions, with the provision that:i) Reproduction shall be made only once or on separate and interrupted intervals.ii) Mention shall be made of the name of the author and the title of the work on each copy.
22Egyptian Law: Law 82 (2002)Eighth:Making one single copy of the work through the national archives; or through the non-profit libraries- either directly or indirectly - in the following cases:Reproduction is made for a published article, a short work or a derivative of a work, so long as the purpose of reproduction has been in fulfillment of a request made by a natural person, for using same in study or research. Such reproduction shall be made for once or on irregular intervals.Reproduction is made for the purpose of maintaining the original copy or of substituting a lost, destroyed or spoiled copy, where it became impracticable to obtain a substitute thereof under reasonable conditions.Ninth:Temporarily reproducing work subsequent to or during the digital transmission of the work; or during exercising an act aiming at receiving a digitally stored work; and within the framework of normal operation of the device used by the right holder.
23Law 82 (2002Article 172 (Media)Without prejudice to the moral rights of the author pursuant to the provisions of the law herein, the author or his successor in title shall not prevent the newspapers, periodicals or broadcasting organizations, within the limits justified by the objective thereof from the following:First:Publishing extracts of the works thereof that have been lawfully made available to the public and the published articles thereof relating to issues which have occupied public opinion at certain times; unless such has been prohibited by the author upon publication. Mention shall be made in this case, of the source of such selections, the name of the author and title of the work.
24Egyptian Law: Law 82 (2002 Second: Publishing speeches, lectures, seminars, and address delivered in the course of public sessions of parliament, legislative and administrative organizations and public meetings in the scientific, literary, artistic, political, social, and religious domain, including judicial hearings in the public sessions. However, the author or his successor shall have the sole right to compile such works in collections attributed thereto.Third:Publishing extracts of an audio, visual, or audiovisual work that has been made available to the public within press coverage of current incidents.
25General Remarks (I)Countries must abide by international agreements and by their international obligationsYet there is a “margin of interpretation” that countries can use when doing thatThis is the case in the area of Copyright Law and Exceptions/Limitations
26General Remarks (II) What is stipulated in laws is important ...But what is even more important is the manner in which laws are implemented…….particularly by the court system
27ConclusionThe ultimate goal of copyright is the cultural enrichment of society.If society cannot benefit from the author’s work in a satisfying degree –because the author charges excessive prices – this would disturb the mutual exchange between them. This could justify the authorization of third parties to reproduce the copyrighted materials without the author’s consent.However, in order to preserve incentive for authors the exception should be limited to what is absolutely required in the public interest.This requires a delicate balancing test between the competing interests of the public and the author.