Presentation on theme: "International Telecommunication Union Internet Governance Forum Nairobi, 30 September 2011 ITUs Activities on ICTs, Environment and Climate Change Cristina."— Presentation transcript:
International Telecommunication Union Internet Governance Forum Nairobi, 30 September 2011 ITUs Activities on ICTs, Environment and Climate Change Cristina Bueti Programme Coordinator ITU
By driving down emissions in the ICT sector itself 1 1 By cutting emissions and raising energy efficiency in other sectors 2 2 By helping countries adapt to the negative effects of climate change 3 3 How ICTs can tackle climate change?
Work in Mitigation Reduction of energy consumption by ICT equipment through new standards; E.g. The promotion of Next Generation Networks (reducing power consumption by up to 40%) Better use of spectrum to reduce energy consumption of wireless devices. Advancing on new standards to promote reduction of emissions by other sectors Smart grids and smart buildings Intelligent transport systems Remote working technologies Sensor-based networks 3
Adaptation Support to get telecoms up and running after disasters Recent examples Pakistan, Haiti and Chile E-Environment Toolkit will help countries to assess the contribution that ICTs can make to reduce GHG emissions. ITU-UNFCCC project in Ghana 4
Ensures availability of radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits for climate monitoring and climate change prediction Develops international treaty level standards to ensure non-interference operation of systems involved in climate monitoring; Carries out studies (through ITU-R Study Groups) for development of new wireless technologies to increase use of remote sensors; Assists administrations in implementing radio systems by analyzing compatibility between new and existing systems As the steward of the global framework for spectrum and satellite orbits, ITU: Data Monitoring 5
Technology transfer Within the WSIS process ITU has built a global online community to exchange best practices in the use of ICTs to promote sustainable development; Focus in project stocktaking; Open to multi-stakeholders (government, academia, private sector, NGOs, etc.) 6 Related topics: E-agriculture E-environment
ITU-T created Study Group Environment & Climate Change ITU-T Study Group 5 (April 2009) Next meeting will be held in Geneva from 11- 19 April 2012 SG 5 meeting concluded in Seoul on 28 September with the approval of 12 Recommendations All ITU-T study groups to examine impact of recommendations on climate change
ITU-T SG5 established seven work areas Coordination and Planning of ICT&CC related standardization (Question 17 of ITU-T SG 5) Methodology of environmental impact assessment of ICT (Q18/5) Power feeding systems (Q19/5) Data collection for Energy Efficiency for ICTs over the lifecycle (Q20/5) Environmental protection and recycling of ICT equipments/facilities (Q21/5) Setting up a low cost sustainable telecommunication infrastructure for rural communications in developing countries (Q22/5) Using ICTs to enable countries to adapt to climate change (Q23/5)
International Telecommunication Union ITU-T Methodology Common methodology for measuring ICT carbon footprint Without, it will be impossible to provide meaningful comparisons Helps to establish the business case to go green
International Telecommunication Union 6 Recommendations under preparation Overview and general principles, approved in February 2011 Covers definition of different types of environmental impacts, and general principles for the evaluation of ICT environmental impacts Focuses on energy and GHG emissions Environmental impact of ICT goods, networks and services Covers direct and indirect impacts of ICT Consented in September 2011 Environmental impact of ICT in organisations Includes 3 scopes of ISO 14064-1 Consented in September 2011 Environmental impact of ICT projects Consent expected in 2012 Environmental impact of ICT in countries Consent expected in 2012 Environmental impact of ICT in cities Consent expected in 2012
International Telecommunication Union Cooperations include
Waste Management with Smart ICT Waste management often linked to farming because of methane emissions In the context of ICT, there is Industrial waste during production Waste due to obsolescence A cradle to cradle raw material and recycling approach aims to keep all the materials in circulation  Design includes easy disassembly Obsolete products returned to factory No need for mining of raw materials
Standard for a universal charger for mobile phones Universal power adapter and charger solution for mobile terminals and other ICT devices (ITU-T Recommendation L.1000) specifies general requirements covers charger for mobile phones Future version will cover other ICT devices
International Telecommunication Union ITUs universal charger standard … have this:Instead of this … Recommendation rev. L.1000 Approved June 2011 New
Collaboration with UN Agencies ITU with UNEP Basel Convention, United Nations University and in collaboration with SteP Initiative and the Center for Environment and Development for the Arab Region (CEDARE) will carry out a joint survey on e-waste ( to be officially launched in October 2011)
Raising Awareness Research & Publications Technology Watch Reports Resources Website Symposiums, Events and Workshops ITU Symposium in Ghana ITU Green Standards Week Symposium in Korea Joint Coordination Activity on ICT&CC
Using Submarine Communications Networks to Monitor the Climate This ITU-T Technology Watch Report gives an overview of how old and new submarine cables could be used for decades to come as a major resource and a real-time global network to monitor climate change and to provide tsunami warnings. Future generations of cables and associated components could have the capacity to directly measure climate variables, such as water temperature and salinity, as well as give pressure readings on the ocean floor. http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/techwatch/Pages/submarinenetworks.aspx
ICT as an Enabler for Smart Water Management Smart water management has become a key policy issue for the 21st century, as a growing number of factors are impacting the delivery of already scarce fresh water to millions of people. Economic growth, seasonal climatic conditions and rising population are all affecting availability of water resources. Moreover, a number of effects linked to climate change, such as lengthy droughts and extreme weather events, are worsening the situation. This ITU-T Technology Watch Report provides an overview of how ICT can be a strategic enabler for smart water management policies and surveys upcoming ICT standards that will enable smart water initiatives. http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/techwatch/Pages/smartwatermanagement.aspx
International Telecommunication Union ITU- UNFCCC Project Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation: the Case of Ghana
Accra Call to Action (1) ICT plays a critical role for: Mitigation Adaptation Capacity building Technology transfer Overall ICT impacts every facet of human life – it is a driving engine for socio-economic development
Accra Call to Action (2) Enhance the transformational role of ICT for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, will require the use of three technology types: telecommunication systems, observation systems, and information systems. Recognize that there is need to build capacities in developing countries to support ICT as tool for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Capacity development is required in three dimensions - institutional development, human resources enhancement and systems development, in particular, relating to legislative and regulatory frameworks. Forge partnerships and engage all stakeholders to address climate change, due to its multi-disciplinary nature, is critical.
22 ITU Project in Ghana How the Telecommunications Sector in Ghana can Reduce Its Own Emissions The Role of ICTs in Climate Change Adaptation: the Case of Ghana
Key Stakeholders are: Sponsors Ministry of Communications Environmental Protection Agency Agencies In cooperation with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) °
Climate in Ghana Total GHG emission is estimated to be 24MtCO2e. Equivalent of 1tCO2e per capita. Energy, Agriculture and Land use change and forestry are the sources of GHG. Energy production, consumption and transport constitute key source of emissions. Oil exploitation is expected to impact on the emission growth in future. CO 2 and CH 4 are the major important GHG gases. Evidence of climate change abound in Ghana. Temperature has increased by 0.6 - 0.8 °C since 1960. According to projections of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), by the year 2080, the rainfall in the country will reduce by 20 to 40 per cent while the temperature will rise by 4.5 C.
Ghana & UNFCCC Ghana signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the Rio de Janeiro Earth summit in June 1992 and ratified same on 5 September 1995. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC was also ratified on 16 November 2002. The instrument of ratification was deposited at the United Nations Headquarters in New York in March 2003.
The Effects of Climate Change in Ghana Africa's contribution to greenhouse gases is low; however the continent is suffering the most in terms of the effect of climate change. Cocoa for instance could become a rare crop in the next 15 years if something is not done to reverse the effects of climate change. H.E. John Dramani Mahama, Vice President, Ghana All these conditions will not be suitable for the growing of cocoa anywhere in the country. As a result of climate change, only the Western Region is producing the bulk of the nation's cocoa as the other regions have lost their soil fertility. The rainfall pattern in the country is already affecting maize production and by the year 2020 it is projected that there will be a seven per cent decline in maize production.
27 How ICTs Can Help Ghana to Adapt to the Effects of Climate Change Ghana is experiencing rapid growth in ICT infrastructure & services This increased access to information, services and applications brings the potential to facilitate adaptation to climate change across a wide range of sectors in Ghana. ICTs are the key to unlocking a broad range of solutions which can help countries like Ghana adapt to climate change. Ghana has a well developed ICT training infrastructure, which it can use to ensure that the right skills are available to implement programmes which marry ICTs to climate change adaptation.
28 Adaptation: Involving ICTs Ghana already has a National Climate Change Committee, currently consulting on the discussion paper Ghana Goes for Green Growth. National telecommunication policy is promoting the migration from separate networks to a single unified network generation networks platform which reduces the number of switching centres and involves higher capacity equipment. Min of Comms & Min of Env developed guidelines for the deployment of masts and base stations for the communication industry Ministry of Communications is pursuing the migration from analogue to digital transmission of radio and TV which envisages significant reduction of transmitter power. National e-government network project which will extend broadband infrastructure to all the District Assembly areas and allow the use of ICT to provide emergency telecommunications
Climate Change: Adaptation includes Ghanas ICTs Risk of more frequent/serious extreme climate events could produce service disruption. Hence, Ghanas ICTs will need: More robust infrastructures. Greater technical knowledge. Enhanced engineering capabilities and international standards Photo Ghana Goes for Green Growth
Preliminary Assessment No single ICT solution can deliver all of the necessary capabilities required for adaptation. The multiplicity of ICT solutions required means that Ghana will need to prioritise the optimum technologies to achieve its stated climate change adaptation objectives. ICT solutions to climate change adaptation in Ghana will need to deliver the following functions: observation; analysis; planning; implementation and management; capacity building; networking.
Next Steps Climate change is complicated and uncertain. There is no single mode of adaptation to climate change. Hence, there is no one recipe for using ICTs in climate change adaptation. Whats needed: Primary research in Ghana to consider the role for ICTs in climate change adaptation, using existing adaptation framework(s). Review which elements can be delivered with Ghanas current ICT assets and capability. Consider which ICTs are needed to deliver the optimum capability for climate change adaptation. Raise awareness and build capacity
Expected Results Guidelines for the telecommunications sector on how to reduce their emissions, including suggested actions to be included in their CSR and internal policies. The first report will also provide guidance on how to implement international standards (including ITU-T Methodology on the Environmental Assessment of ICT). Guidelines for Ghana as to how it can adapt to climate change using ICTs including suggested actions for the government of Ghana which will be in line with the ongoing UNFCCC process. Including the establishment of a coalition of stakeholders to mainstream ICT in climate change activities and policies.
Looking Ahead to COP-17 COP-17: 28 November - 9 December 2011, Durban (South Africa) Linking ICTs with the Cancun Agreements: The role of technology is already well recognized in the UNFCCC process (through the Technology Mechanisms and the Climate Technology Center and Network – CTCN- established in the Cancun Agreements) Innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technologies, including ICTs, is key to both mitigation and adaptation. 33
Conclusion Climate change is affecting Ghanas economic output and livelihoods and is a threat to our development prospects. This is now everybodys business, and all stakeholders need to be part of the response. The Honourable Haruna Iddrisu, Minister of Communications, Ghana It is time to include ICTs in Ghanas adaptation policy process.
35 Links & Additional Information ITU-T and climate change http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/climatechangehttp://www.itu.int/ITU-T/climatechange ITU and climate change http://www.itu.int/climate ITU Symposia & Events on ICTs and Climate Change http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/worksem/climatechange http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/worksem/climatechange For additional information: firstname.lastname@example.org