Presentation on theme: "1.1 The Computer Revolution. Computer Revolution Early calculating machines Mechanical devices used to add and subtract By Babylonian (Iraq) 5000 years."— Presentation transcript:
Computer Revolution Early calculating machines Mechanical devices used to add and subtract By Babylonian (Iraq) 5000 years ago In 17 th century, John Napier developed a series of rods called bones to produce first table of algorithms (arithmetic operation) In 1642, Blaise Pascal produced Pascaline which use wheel to add number After 30 years. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz produced device call Stepped Reckoner which used gear or wheel to perform computations (multiplication and division)
Computer Revolution Early calculating machines 1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented an automatic loom The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punch cards to control a sequence of operations.punch cards Although no computation involved, it is considered an important step in the history of computing hardwarehistory of computing hardware
Jacquard Loom Jacquard loom on display at Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, EnglandMuseum of Science and Industry ManchesterEngland
Computer Revolution Early calculating machines 1820 Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar produced the arithmometer, the first four function practical mechanical calculator In 19 th century, Charles Babbage designed a steam-powered machine called the difference engine to calculate numbers of mathematical table Analytical engine capable to do a variety of mathematical computations
Computer Revolution Early calculating machines Herman Hollerith an employee of Census Office in Washington developed punch card processing machine called Census Tabulator to process census data Consisted of a manual card puncher, an electronic card reader and an electromechanical card sorter The company merged and change its name several times Today, its new name is International Business Machine Corporation (IBM)
Computer Revolution Early calculating machines A new class of computing device called analog computer used electrical voltages to represent physical quantities Function by establishing an analog between a physical quantity and a voltage lever In 1940s, first electronic computer ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) and ENIAC (Electric numerator, Integrator, Analyzer and Computer) were built.
Computer Revolution Early calculating machines In 1949, the first electronic computer operating under the control of a stored program called EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer) was completed Stored program is a set of instruction stored internally that guide the computer step by step through a process The first integrated circuit (IC) produced by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments in 1960
Computer Revolution First generation (1942 – 1959) Utilized vacuum tubes in their circuitry and for the storage of data and instructions The vacuum was bulky, cause tremendous heat problem and it caused a great number of breakdown Magnetic core replaced the vacuum tube Programming done in machine language that is combination of bit or binary digits 0 and 1 Binary digit is the way of representing data
Computer Revolution Second generation (1959 – 1965) The replacement of vacuum tube in computer circuit with the transistor Because of the speed and small size, computer were developed to perform a single operation in microseconds (millionths of second) Capable to store tens of thousand of characters 2 nd generation computers extremely more reliable, compact in size and virtually free of heat problem
Computer Revolution Second generation (1959 – 1965) Business oriented computer with more efficient storage and faster input and output capabilities Programming language written both in machine language and symbolic language Symbolic language utilized symbolic names or representations for computer command and symbolic names for items of data
Computer Revolution Third generation (1965 - 1970) Characterized by microminiaturized integrated circuits with components so small Increased input/output, storage and processing capabilities Input/output introduced to communicate with computers over telephone line, display pictures on a television and musical Could process instruction in nanoseconds (billionths of a second) Process set of instructions (programs) concurrently
Computer Revolution Fourth generation (1970 - ) Introduced monolithic storage device (the components and surface that supports them utilized the same materials eg. Silicon) Improved and further miniatured integrated logic circuits and as actual laser memory was constructed for NASA The beam of the laser has the ability to carry all the conversations going on at one time on the planet earth
Computer Revolution Fourth generation (1970 - ) IBM has introduced the concept of virtual storage Virtual storage capable to store billions and trillions of characters CD ROM become a data storage memory in choice Encoded with a series of on and off bits The average CD can store 4,800 millions bit or 600 millions characters of data
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