Presentation on theme: "ELECTRICITY. TYPES OF ELECTRICITY Electricity is the study of how charges interact. In general, electricity refers to electric charge. There are two types."— Presentation transcript:
TYPES OF ELECTRICITY Electricity is the study of how charges interact. In general, electricity refers to electric charge. There are two types of electricity: static electricity and current electricity.
How Electricity was discovered! Discovered by Thales (a Greek philosopher) in 600 B.C. Thales observed that a piece of amber rubbed with cat fur could attract small pieces of straw and wood shavings. By rubbing the amber and the fur, Thales had created an electric charge on both objects (one positive, the other negative.). Coincidentally, the Greek word for amber is “elektron”. Because the charge does not leave the material, it is said to be stationary or static. This led to the term static electricity.
Electric charge is a property of the particles of atoms. Recall the structure of the atom, from chemistry: PROTON, Positive charge, high mass Electric Charge ELECTRON, Negative charge, low mass NUCLEUS NEUTRON, Neutral charge, high mass BOHR-RUTHERFORD MODEL OF A LITHIUM ATOM SIMPLIFIED MODELS OF A LITHIUM ATOM
Simplified Model of Atom used in this Class! THIS IS NOT A BOHR-RUTHERFORD DIAGRAM OF AN ATOM! THIS IS A SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM OF AN ATOM TO HELP EXPLAIN STATIC ELECTRICITY FOR OUR LESSON.
Electric Charge of an Atom Electrons can be added to, or removed from atoms. http://library.thinkquest.org/27961/guide/4%20-%20high/elect/2%20-%20moving%20electrons.html Neutrally Charged Lithium Atom Negatively Charged Lithium Atom Positively Charged Lithium Atom
Symbols used for charges + NEUTRAL CHARGE ATOM, (MAY NOT BE SHOWN ON A DIAGRAM) POSITIVELY CHARGE ATOM NEGATIVELY CHARGED ATOM DO NOT CONFUSE “ + ” AS THE PROTONS IN A NUCLEUS, THE NUCLEUS REMAINS IN ITS SAME POSITION INSIDE AN ATOM IN A OBJECT !
Another Example of Electric Charge of an Atom. Neutrally Charged Aluminum Atom Negatively Charged Aluminum Atom Positively Charged Aluminum Atom DRAW A SIMPLIFIED ATOMIC MODEL FOR NEUTRAL, NEGATIVE AND POSTIVE CHARGED ATOMS OF CARBON, C AND MAGNESIUM, Mg.
Charges on Objects Neutral objects have equal numbers of protons and electrons within a quantity of matter.
Charges on Objects Negatively charged objects have more electrons than protons. Notice there are more neutrally charge atoms than negatively charged atoms! How can this object be negatively charged?
Charges on Objects Positively charged objects have fewer electrons than protons. Notice there is a negatively charged atom in this object! Is this object really positively charged?
Draw the charges for this object What is the overall charge on this object?
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charge of an object. Often charges move to the surface of an object. REMEMBER! “+” is a positively charged atom, not a proton. The nucleus of an atom always stays in the same position and electrons move from atom to atom! Static Electricity
When two different materials come in contact, electrons can be transferred between them, causing an imbalance in charge. Static Electricity
Charging by friction occurs when two neutral objects made of different materials rub against or touch each other and electrons are transferred between them. BEFORE Charging by Friction (contact i) fur Plastic rod The rod and fur are both neutral.
Charging by Friction Notice that some of the electrons from the fur moved to the plastic rod and thus changed the number of charges on the rod and fur. AFTER What are the new charges on each object? Are there still the same number of “atoms” in each object? Are there still the same number of +, - and 0 charges from before we rubbed the rod and fur?
Electrostatic Series When objects are charged by friction, one material is more likely to accept electrons, while the other is more likely to give up electrons; this is because some kinds of atoms are more strongly attracted to electrons than others. The electrostatic series is a list that ranks the tendency of different materials to gain electrons. It can be used to predict the charge that will be gained by two objects (made from different materials) when they come in contact.. An electrostatic series chart is arranged in terms of the relative “hold” that different materials have on their electrons.
Human Skin + (weaker tendency to gain electrons) (stronger tendency to gain electrons) - Rabbit Fur Acetate Glass Human Hair Nylon Wool Cat fur Silk Paper Cotton Wood Amber Rubber Balloon Vinyl Polyester Ebonite
Charging by conduction occurs when two objects with different amounts of electric charge come in contact and electrons are transferred from on object to the other. BEFORE Charging an object through Conduction (contact ii) Metal rod- overall -5 charge Metal ball- overall neutral charge
During Charging an object through Contact or Conduction Metal rod Metal ball Metal rod losing 5 electrons. Metals ball gaining 5 electrons
Charging an object through Contact or Conduction AFTER What are the new charges on each object? Are there still the same number of “atoms” in each object? Metal ball Metal rod A neutral object is charged by conduction when a charged object touches it. The neutral object becomes charged with the same charge as the object it touched.
More about Charging by Conduction When two charged objects with different amounts of electric charge come in contact, electrons are transferred between them. metal rod x- overall +3 charge metal rod Y- overall charge +1 metal rod x- gaining an electron, metal rod Y- losing an electron metal rod x- overall +2 charge metal rod Y- overall charge +2
Most materials let electrons flow through them, though some let electrons flow more easily than others. A conductor is any material that will allow the flow of charge (i.e. electrons). Electrons distribute themselves evenly throughout the object (ex. metals, solutions). An insulator is any material that does NOT allow the flow of charge. Electrons are not free to move, causing a build-up of charge in a part of the object (ex. rubber, glass, paper). Classifying materials by their Electrical Characteristics : Conductors & Insulators
What are conductors used for? Conductors are used whenever a flow of electricity is needed. The inside of a wire, the tips of batteries, and the rods of a plug are conductors. Copper and aluminum are the most common materials used due to their low cost and efficiency. See Table 9.1, pg 308 of text
What are Insulators used for? Rubber is an excellent insulator, and it is used to protect people from electricity. Insulators are used primarily for safety. Common uses include gloves for working on power lines and the main body of a plug. See Table 9.1, pg 308 of text
Grounding Objects with excess electric charge-either positive or negative- can have access charge removed by a process called grounding. When we ground an object, we transfer electrons between the object and a large neutral object such as Earth (the ground). Symbol used for grounding electrons
Grounding Before the discharge, the hand is negatively charged and the faucet is neutral During discharge, excess electrons are transferred from the hand into the ground. After discharge, the negative charge on the hand has been removed.
Induction – placing a charged object near a neutral object without touching it. The neutral object will end up with a temporary charge opposite of the charged object. Charging an Object through Induction Neutral sphere grounded Separation of Charge by bringing a charged rod close by
Charging an Object through Induction Keep the charged rod near sphere and remove connection to ground. Remove the charged rod
THE LAW OF ELECTRIC CHARGE Opposite charges attract (law of attraction) Positive, + and Negative,- Same charges repel (law of repulsion) Positive, + and Positive, + or Negative, – and Negative, – Neutral and charged objects attract Neutral,0 and Positive, + or Neutral,0 and Negative, – Neutral and Neutral objects do nothing!
Detecting Charge: The Electroscope An electroscope can be used to detect the presence of an electric charge.