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Food safety and aquatic animals Lahsen Ababouch Chief, Fish Products, Trade and Marketing Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Food and Agriculture Organization.

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Presentation on theme: "Food safety and aquatic animals Lahsen Ababouch Chief, Fish Products, Trade and Marketing Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Food and Agriculture Organization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Food safety and aquatic animals Lahsen Ababouch Chief, Fish Products, Trade and Marketing Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Food and Agriculture Organization Rome, Italy OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health Programmes: Their benefits for Global Food Security Panama City, 28 – 30 June 2011

2 World Fish Trade 2007 (by value)

3 Fisheries and Aquaculture Value Chain (Estimated at US $ 818 billion) Capture fisheries US $ 100 billion Primary processing US $ 90 billion Secondary processing US $ 180 billion Distribution US $ 350 billion Aquaculture US $ 98 billion 3

4 Historical background Attempts to codify food well known by early civilizations and during the middle age Scientific developments of nineteenth century More recent milestones : Creation of the Codex Alimentarius , the UNGA adopted resolution 39/248 on guidelines for consumer protection : Creation of the WTO and signing of two agreements on The SPS measures and on TBT

5 Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT) Revised Agreement from Tokyo Round ( ) Purpose of Agreement: 1.To encourage the development and use of international standards and conformity assessment systems 2.t o prevent the use of technical requirements as unjustifiable trade barriers 3.To prevent deceptive trade practices Product (1979) vs. product, process and production methods (1995) SPS measures for agriculture and foods dealt with separately under SPS

6 Scope of SPS and TBT is different! technical regulations, standards, conformity assessment procedures Central Governments, regional Governments, Non Government Organizations any measure

7 World Trade Organisation Guidelines Standards Codes of Practice of CODEX, OIE, IPPC or other international Organizations SPS/TBT, harmonization and equivalence National Regulations

8 Objectives of the Codex alimentarius To protect the health of consumers; To ensure fair trade practices in food production and distribution; To coordinate the development of food standards and facilitate international trade in food

9 Management Organs of the Codex Alimentarius The Executive Committee The Regional Co-coordinating Committees The Secretariat of the Commission

10 Technical Organs of the Codex Alimentarius 9 General Subject (horizontal) Committees 12 Commodity (vertical) Committees 4 Ad Hoc Inter-Governmental Task Forces (JECFA, JEMRA,...)

11 General Subject Committees 1.General Principles (France) 2.Import/Export Inspection and Certification Systems (Australia) 3.Food Labeling (Canada) 4.Methods of Analysis & Sampling (Hungary) 5.Food Hygiene (USA) 6.Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food (USA) 7.Pesticide Residues (Netherlands) 8.Food Additives and Contaminants (Netherlands) 9.Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (Germany)

12 Active Commodity Committees 1.Fats and Oils (Malaysia) 2.Fish and Fishery Products (Norway) 3.Milk and Milk Products (New Zealand) 4.Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (Mexico) 5.Cocoa Products & Chocolate (Switzerland) 6.Natural Mineral Waters (Switzerland)

13 Decision to elaborate standard (Commission) Draft standard proposed (Relevant Codex Committee) Request for Comments (Secretariat) Amendments / Session (Relevant Codex Committee) Adoption as a draft standard (Commission) Request for Comments (Secretariat) Amendments / Session (Relevant Codex Committee) Adoption as a Codex standard (Commission) UNIFORM PROCEDURE



16 Codex Outputs relevant to Fisheries and aquaculture Code of practice for food hygiene (GHP, HACCP, Risk assessment, microbiological criteria) Standards for fish and fishery products (Volume 9A: 16 standards on frozen, canned, salted and dried fish, 2 guidelines for sensory evaluation) Code of practice for Fish and Fishery products (GHP, GAP, HACCP) Several international risk assessments (Vibrios in seafood, biotoxins, antimicrobial resistance) Several principles and guidelines for food import and export inspection and certification MRL for veterinary drugs relevant to FFP MRL for contaminants relevant to FFP Work in progress (EC Viruses, Risk/benefits of MeHg or active chlorine, antimicrobial resistance, fish sauce, sturgeon caviar)

17 The food chain approach (FAO) Prevention at Source Risk Analysis Harmonization Equivalence Traceability

18 Prevention at source Producers and processors are responsible for fish safety and quality along the food chain using preventive systems (GAP, GHP, HACCP and GMP) Competent authorities enact food laws and regulations, verify that producers and processors apply properly preventive systems (through inspection, audit and verification)

19 Risk Communication (interactive exchange of information and ideas) Risk Assessment scientific hazards exposure dose-response synthesis uncertainty Risk Management policy social cultural economic Process Initiation The Risk Analysis Process

20 How do experts and consumers rate risks?

21 Food safety hazards from aquatic animal products Microbiological contaminants: 1.Bacteria (Vibrio spp., Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli,...) 2.viruses (hepatitis A, Norwalk) 3.Parasites (nematodes, cestodes, trematodes) Chemical contaminants: pesticides, heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs,... Residues of 1.veterinary drugs (chloramphenicol, nitrofurans, green malachite,...) 2.additives (e.g. metabisulfites) Biotoxins: PSP, DSP, ASP, NSP

22 EU Rapid Alert System-by causes for Aquaculture CAUSE total (01-04) 46 total Chloramphenicol (43%) (76%) (71%) 13 48(35%) 8 26(57%) 0 chemicalnitrofurans malachite green total Vibrio (parahaemolyticus/cholerae) 46(92%) 36 (16/20) 57(56%) 38 (25/13) 58(23%) 37 (27/10) 29(28%) 15 (13/2) 87(64%) 26 (22/4) 19(41%) 2 (2/0) salmonella biologicalmesophiles listeria e.coli others total Labeling 4(8%) 4 0 1(1%) 1 1(1%) 0 2(1%) 2 1(2%) 0 temp.control % % 9 2% %

23 Sources of food safety hazards in aquaculture Farm and its surroundings Water Source of fry and fingerlings Feed Grow-out (practices, workers, animals) Harvesting and transportation Biosecurity vs GAP/GHP

24 Harmonization and equivalence Codex standards, Codes of practice and guidelines European Union: Farm to Fork Food Hygiene Package ( ) FDA: 1997 (21CFR 1230): GHP, GMP, Guidance for hazards in fish and fishery products, Seafood HACCP Alliance training program Mutual recognition agreements





29 Economics (US$ per ha) Profit Doubled over the year Gross Revenue increased by 14% 29

30 Progress: Villages Farmers Ha FAO Aceh 601/ARC Jun 2010

31 Development of private standards Food scares: Mad cow disease, Dioxin, Avian flu, SARS,... Loss of confidence in public control authorities Concern over the sustainability of natural resources, the marine fauna (dolphins, whales, turtles,...) and environment Increasing influence of civil society and consumer advocacy groups Globalization of production, processing and trade Vertical integration and Consolidation Supermarketization, including in developing countries Increasing role of retailers as the last link between suppliers and consumers. The use of B2B standards to protect reputations Emergence of coalitions (GFSI, BRC)

32 Corporate social responsibility - Legality (IUU) - Sustainability - Certification - Eco-labelling - Tracability and chain of custody - Social and Environmental aspects

33 Market Response Individual logos are the property of the owner and used for illustration purposes only

34 Implications Competing standards and labels can be confusing as to the value of the process Definition of boundaries between private and public sectors. Who is responsible for what? Duplication or complementarity Compliance with WTO rules Who bears the cost of certification Specific needs of small scale businesses and developing countries

35 Governments Policymakers Fisheries Bodies National Fisheries Fishing Farming Sector Processors Retailers B2C Focus B2B Focus B2B Focus Market driven phase

36 Guidelines for aquaculture certification 1.Background 2.Scope 3.Terms and Definitions 4.Users 5.Application 6.Principles (OIE) 7.Minimum Substantive Criteria 7.1 Animal Health and Welfare (OIE) 7.2 Food Safety and Quality 7.3 Environmental Integrity 7.4 Social Responsibility 8.INSTITUTIONAL AND PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS 8.1 Governance 8.2 Standards Setting 8.3 Accreditation 8.4 Certification 9.Implementation

37 ! شكراً ! Thank you! Merci! Gracias! Спасибо

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