Presentation on theme: "Safeguarding Agricultural and Environmental Resources:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Safeguarding Agricultural and Environmental Resources: Regional Centers of Phytosanitary ExcellenceAn initiative to globally refocus safeguarding effortsDr. Ron Sequeira apologizes for not being here. Several of his family members are from New Orleans and he is spending several weeks helping with rebuilding. He does however remain committed to the concept of Centers of Phytosanitary Excellence and thanks you in advance for your patience with our exploratory efforts.Most of you may have heard about variations on this topic. For us, it is very close to our hearts. In the 1970s, the disparate USDA labs working on topics that supported phytosanitary efforts were brought together under a paradigm called Centers of Excellence which was designed to provide coordinated support for domestic and international safeguarding efforts. In 2005, this paradigm lives on and is responsible for the existence of our own CPHST, The USDA’s Center for Plant Health Science and Technology.This talk will expand on the broad concept of COPE, what it means in terms of function, structure and administration and how the concept might be adapted to the specific needs of different regions. Importantly, this talk will explore how to engage and interact with international and domestic support structures including IPPC, RPPOs, and NPPOs.Ron A. Sequeira and Christina DevorshakUSDA-APHIS-PPQCenter for Plant Health Science and Technology
2 We are in this together… USFirst off, I want to recognize that we are indeed in this together. Many of our interactions are often affected by trade dynamics and the sometimes contentious nature of these engagements.However, in a globalized world, increasingly we have shared problems and common goals. We see the COPEs as great way to capture these common initiatives.You-All
3 A Functional Hierarchy for COPEs IPPC, NPPO and COPELeadershipSTANDARDS REVIEWCOMMODITY RISK ANALYSISTREATMENT PROTOCOLSSURVEY, DETECTION& DIAGNOSTICSLet me jump right in and state that we see COPEs not simply as a trade support structure or even as a group that cranks out pest risk analyses.In our discussions with our counterparts around the globe, we have identified key areas of functional engagement for a COPE.Review of International Standards to assure that IPPC products are truly representative and applicable to regional conditions.Pests and pathway risk analysis, with emphasis on commodity risk analysisTreatment technology. This is an often crucial component and it represents a highly complex task. The development or adaptation of regionally relevant treatments and systems approaches are just the beginning.4. Survey, detection and Identification/diagnostics establish the foundation for risk analysis and safeguarding.5. Monitoring compliance, assuring effective mitigation and the formal oversight of quality control systems are captured under the QC function6. Finally, the last functional area recognizes the need for continued growth and development of our phytosanitary cadres.QUALITY CONTROLTRAINING
4 Areas of Emphasis for COPEs Export SupportDevelop commodity risk analyses to support U.S. exportsEmergency Response CapacityEnhanced Risk AnalysisDevelop action plans targeting high risk pests and pathwaysSupport streamlining risk analysis supportTrade BarriersOffshore risk reductionSafeguardingPlants for PlantingDevelop risk analysis products to target SPS Technical IssuesCOPE networking and IPPC-mediated multilateral exercisesDespite those high level functions, a specific COPE may have idiosyncratic problems or highly focused interests. This slide recognizes that fact and highlights some of the specific engagements in the NAPPO area.Pest and Disease SurveillanceBiotechnologyProvide input to pest lists and characterization of invasiveness researchRisk Analysis and policy reviewsQuality Assurance / AccreditationDevelop accreditation or certification for oversight of targeted pathways
5 Managing the process: one example CPHST DirectorGordon GordhAssociate DirectorV1NSPL-SurveyNSPL-BioTechNSPL-RANSPL-AQINSPL-IPMD. FieselmannP. BergerR. SequeiraL. ZettlerR. SequeiraPERALR. GriffinAssistant DirectorS1Let me clarify that we do not mean to state that our organization is the best example of a COPE. If you work for us, you already know that that is not the point of this slide.The point of this slide is to simply show one way a cope can be configured and highlight some of our experiences building such an organization.--Christina: briefly explain the CPHST structure with special attention to PERAL.--Commodity PRAOrganism PRAPathway AnalysisIntl. and OutreachFruit and VegetablesEU Q37sQ37NPAGPest ListsPotato Wart,KBMini PRAsNRCNorthern BorderSouthern borderGarbageNAPPO/IPPCOffshore Pest InfoPASOutreachReg. Curriculum
6 (Pre- and post harvest phytosanitary options) Treatment Menu(Pre- and post harvest phytosanitary options)Broadcast pesticidesBait spraysMale annihilationIrradiationPlanting dateHost Plant ResistanceBiological Control/Inundative releasesSterile Insect ReleaseExclusion through enclosed productionTissue cultureSystems Approaches/IPMParatransgenesisField SanitationMass trappingPheromone disruptionCullingScreens/mechanical barriersRestriction to non-suitable areasIndexingClean stock programsHACCPSteam/Vapor HeatHot WaterChlorine dipFungicide dipWashingWaxingCold TreatmentCold StorageContainment/Low PrevalenceArea freedomFumigation (soil)Fumigation (commodity)Harvest timingInspection/RejectionPhoto by Ken HammondI also mentioned that what we know as “AQI” which is better described as Treatement Technology is another fundamental building block for COPEs.Here, the critical understnaind is that whereas there may be a long, long list of phytosanitary options (as exemplified by the tiny type menu in the middle of this slide), the most important question that is first asked is whether the overall effort aims to: Exclude pests, Manage pests, or eradicate pests.Once that determination is made, then we can draw from the menu as appropriate. For example (next slide)…Strategic Analysis at COPEsExclusionManagementEradication
7 Stemming the tide through ports of entry… or taking the battle offshore…? Citrus CankerSODSBREABRalstoniaCLBLarch CankerFruit fliesPortinspGiant African SnailNPPO means“No plant pest opposed”ALBGypsy MothThis is far from an American problem. Whereas, our own issues are well known to us, we are also well aware that even more dramatic invasions are being experienced abroad.The approach rate of invasives is quickly outstripping our ability to respond.Another dimension is represented by the increased rigor required by importing countries in terms of management requirements.Clearly, what we need is an infrastructure that will allow us to share resources, share information without at the same time disrupting or becoming burdensome to host countries and contributing groups.PSBGrasshopper/Mormon CricketPlum PoxKB
8 Safeguarding (Countermeasures) Continuum DETERDETECTDESTROYMANAGEDENYDECIDECONTAINRECOVERPREVENT PREEMPT RESPOND MITIGATE RESTOREThis slide insists on the fact that our collective agencies currently focus their attention on rapid response and recovery (not a bad thing) but in the long term, it is better to move towards the left of this slide (prevention) through stronger international collaboration and understanding of our mutual issues and concerns.Where we need to be…Where we were (are?)
9 (another look at Offshore Hazard and Risk Management) Desiderata(another look at Offshore Hazard and Risk Management)Offshore risk management based on regional partnershipsSPS Capacity buildingPhytosanitary Centers of ExcellenceOffshore risks information and alert systemsIPPC PortalsGPDD/OPISIS “safeguarding officers”PreclearanceCPHST risk analystsTrade FacilitationExport/ImportSpecific desiderata will depend on each RPPO.For our case, this slide outlines some of our areas of focus.
10 This is the current IPPC structure. It may be the hardest working group here, but its size and structure is unequal to the task of leading global COPEs.Still, many of us believe that this structure is key and must be further developed.for that we may want to look at other models.
11 Best Practices Approach The OIE ModelOIE regional representationsOIE regional commissions
12 Phytosanitary Centers of Excellence FranceUnited StatesJapanColombiaSouth Africa
13 SPS Capacity Building For Africa SPS Seminar SeriesAPHIS Risk Assessment AdvisorsRegional SPS Resource Centers and LaboratoriesCenter of Phytosanitary Excellence (COPEs)Explain where we’re currently at and what is currently being funded.PRA CenterSPS LabTraining CenterBuilding National and Sub-Regional CapacityPreclearance ProgramsInfrastructure Strengthening
14 Seminar Series WTO/Policy Risk Assessment Training Public/Private Sector DialogueDon’t forget to mention our upcoming Central Africa work.Risk assessment was only an introduction to the subject.Our current risk assessment activities came out of voiced needs during this seminar series.
15 APHIS PRA Technical Advisors One Risk Assessment Advisor placed at each US Trade Hub (Gaborone, Kampala, Accra)Additional short-term technical assistanceCochran training (market analysis and risk assessment)Status of placing long-term advisors in Africa.The role of advisors doing PRA work and training in PRAs.Short-term TA (Zambia, SA, Uganda, Tanzania, Namibia)Up-coming Cochran Program training
16 Regional SPS Resource Centers and Laboratories PRA CenterSPS LaboratoryTraining CenterConduct PRAs for countries and exporting agribusinessesPest mappingCompile and store pest dataConduct mitigation trialsRisk AnalysisPPQ IssuesSPS Infrastructure BuildingWant to create regional centers of expertise in association with regional economic/trade institutions.PRA Center – PRA shop (regional experts)SPS Lab – creating the scientific foundation for risk analysis and mitigationTraining Center – General training on risk analysis, PPQ issues as they come up, and the necessary components of a functioning plant health and safety infrastructure.The training center would also conduct SPS infrastructure assessments of countries in the regions and design targeted training and technical assistance to help strengthen areas of particular need.It is also very important to mention that we envision this center to be self-sustaining via service fees, membership dues, and maybe a core grant for an endowment.
17 Measuring success Enhanced export opportunities Protecting borders and territoriesEmergency response and recoveryDetect and assess new pestsRespond as neededProtect national resourcesDemonstrate NPPO effectivenessProvide assurance to trading partners
18 The Colombia CEFAPHIS Attaché/Colombia, John Shaw, and APHIS PPQ’s Ron Sequeira created a local/regional center that conducts PRAs and mitigation research.Using this model could help us replicate the work of the three risk assessment advisors currently in Sub-Saharan Africa.
19 R. A. Sequeira and Christina Devorshak Centers of Phytosanitary ExcellenceR. A. Sequeira and Christina DevorshakUSDA-APHIS-PPQCenter for Plant Health Science and Technology