3 Section 1: Examining Social Life Sociology: the study of human interaction and relationships
4 So…how is sociology similar to and different from other social sciences? Social sciences are a category of studies that focus on human behavior, institutions, and functions of human society in a scientific manner.Sociology human society and social behaviorMain interests in social interaction (how people relate to each other’s behavior)andsocial phenomena (observable facts or events that involve human society).
5 Pair Partner Reflection What is sociology?How is sociology similar to and different from other social sciences?
6 The Sociological Perspective …Looking beyond what is considered the common belief and value system to explore the hidden meaning behind human actions.“Searching for the ELEPHANT in the room”
7 Sociological Imagination: The ability to see the connection between the larger world and your personal lifeVAL8-1g
8 Other Social Sciences are… Anthropology: the comparative study of past and present culturesPsychology: study of the mind and human behaviorSocial Psychology: the study of how the social environment affects an individual behavior and personalityEconomics: the study of satisfy needs and wants of the individual and society through making choicesPolitical science: the study of organization and operation of governmentsHistory: the study of past events
9 Section 2: Sociology: Then and Now Factors that developed the study of SOCIOLOGY:Rapid social and political change occurred in Europe because of the Industrial Revolution.Rural economy (farming) decreased and Urban economy (factories/industries) increased.More workers than available jobs; shortage of housing; increased crime, and pollution.The effect of society on individual freedom and individual rights.
10 Early Years of Development The most influential early developers of Sociology were…
11 Auguste Comte French philosopher (1798-1857) Considered the FOUNDER of SociologyApplied scientific methods to the study of social life.Coined the term sociology.Inspired the events of the French Revolution2 areas of study:Social orderSocial change (social dynamics)Ignored the research and theories of others to keep his mind “pure” (called cerebral hygiene)Auguste Comte
12 Herbert Spencer English philosopher (1820 – 1903) Influenced by Charles Darwin’s Nature vs. Nurture TheoryBelieved in the “survival of the fittest”Social Darwinism – people achieve or not achieve their economic and social status based on their physical and intellectual capabilitiesAlso practiced “cerebral hygiene”
13 Karl Marx German philosopher (1818-1883) Believed that the structure of society is heavily influenced by how its economy is organized.2 classes in society:Bourgeoisie – capitalists; own the means and methods to produce goods and servicesProletariat – workers; own nothingBelieved that an imbalance in social power leads to social conflictClassless society would be created by a workers’ revolution with all needs taken care of by contributions from all
14 Emile Durkheim Frenchman (1858-1917) Developed the first university sociology courseOne of the first sociologists to systematically apply the scientific method to sociology.Concerned with the problem of social orderFocus on the function of interdependent parts of societySaw religion as a way to maintain social order; offered a moral compassShould only study aspects of society that is directly observable.
15 Max Weber Prussian (1864-1920) Was an economics professor Interested in separate groups within society, instead of society as a whole.Believed sociologists should go BEYOND what is observable and search for the feelings and thoughts of the individualsVerstehen (fehr-SHTAY-en): an attempt to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions (i.e. Listening with Understanding and Empathy).Worked to identify the essential characteristics of a feature of society (ideal type).
16 Functionalist Perspective Conflict Perspective (Comte, Spencer, & Durkheim)Conflict Perspective(Karl Marx)Interactionist Perspective(Max Weber)See society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social systemFocus mostly on the functions of the family and educationExample: Family Structure In SocietyTerms to Know:Dysfunctional – any part of society that has a negative consequence or does not operate as intendedManifest function – the intended consequence of some element of societyLatent function – the unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society.Focus on the forces in society that promote competition and change.Monitors the effects of the powerful on the powerless.Anticipates social conflict from lack of resources for some.Example:How Social Status Affects RelationshipsFocus on how individuals interact with one another in society on an everyday basis.Monitors how symbols affect peopleExample: Interactions with People Who are ObeseTerm to Know:Symbol: anything that represent something else.