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Sociology -- the scientific study of human social relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Sociology -- the scientific study of human social relationships."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sociology -- the scientific study of human social relationships

3 WHAT IS SOCIAL?

4 Social -- interaction between two or more people

5 Asocial -- not social, not interacting with others Either by choice … … or by being left out

6 Anti-social -- negative interaction or avoidance of interaction KEEP OUT

7 Pseudo-social -- appears to be social, but isnt

8 Early Sociologists A Brief Review

9 Theorists of Sociology Comte Durkheim Marx Spencer Weber

10 Auguste Comte Considered the founder of Sociology Coined the term sociology

11 Comte coined term Sociology –Socious- companion (Latin) –Logos- study of (Greek)

12 Theorists of Sociology Auguste Comte- French Philosopher, interested in finding solutions to the chaos of the French Revolution

13 Comte believed that sociologists should be concerned with two main concepts: Order & Change

14 Comte Social Statics èconstants ènon-changing principles èlife and death èman v. nature

15 Comte –change –attitudes and acceptable behaviors Social Dynamics

16 Auguste Comte Practiced cerebral hygiene

17 Comte §Positivism - all science should be value free and objective

18 Karl Marx Not really a sociologist, but a social philosopher

19 Karl Marx Believed that class conflict led to social change Influenced the modern conflict theory

20 Theorists of Sociology Karl Marx ( ) not a sociologist but had a profound affect on sociology (and history)

21 Marx- importance of economics in everyday life and in history Economic Determinism

22 Marx- Concerned with class conflict Worker v. Capitalist

23 Marx Felt that any historical change would involve conflict between the workers and capitalists

24 Marx- society similar to a human body- each part performs a function many parts make up the whole Organic Totalitity

25 Herbert Spencer Was strongly influenced by Charles Darwin Believed no steps should be taken to correct societys problems

26 Herbert Spencer Coined the phrase Survival of the Fittest His theory is called Social Darwinism

27 Herbert Spencer Society is made up of interdependent parts

28 Emile Durkheim First sociologist to systematically apply the scientific method to the study of society

29 Emile Durkheim Greatly influenced the modern Functionalist theory

30 Emile Durkheim- Thought only the overt should be studied Not- thoughts, feelings or emotions Believed that everything has numerous functions

31 Emile Durkheim- functions Manifest Function- the intended or primary purpose of an object –transportation Latent Function- the unintended purpose of an object –status symbol

32 Max Weber Studied the effects of society on the individual Influenced the modern Inter- actionist theory

33 Max Weber Verstehen -- essentially seeing a situation through someone elses eyes

34 Max Weber- Interested in groups within society, not just society as a whole

35 Max Weber- Verstehen §understanding the meaning others attach to their actions

36 … And now for something new...

37 Sociological Imagination

38 C. Wright Mills No social study is complete until it deals with the intersection of History and Biography Biography H t i s r y

39 This intersection is the connection between the larger world (history)... … and our personal lives (biography)

40 Sociological Imagination … can therefore be defined as the ability to perceive the connection between your per- sonal life and the larger world around you.

41 Sociological Imagination Mills said that the researcher must follow three lines of questioning to utilize sociological imagination:

42 What is the structure of the society as a whole? What are its essential components? How are they interrelated? How does this society differ from others?

43 Where does this society stand in human history? How is it changing? How is it affected by the historical period in which it exists?

44 What varieties of people prevail in this society? What are the men and women in this society like? Who are the winners and how are these people selected or formed in this society?

45 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist developed the idea of Social Darwinism?

46 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist developed the idea of Social Darwinism? A. Herbert Spencer

47 Theorist Evaluation Q. Who coined the term sociology?

48 Theorist Evaluation Q. Who coined the term sociology? A. Auguste Comte

49 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist emphasized class conflict?

50 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist emphasized class conflict? A. Karl Marx

51 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist is responsible for the idea of verstehen?

52 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist is responsible for the idea of verstehen? A. Max Weber

53 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist applied the scientific method to sociology?

54 Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist applied the scientific method to sociology? A. Emile Durkheim

55 … And now for the Sociological Theoretical Perspectives...

56 Functionalist Perspective: Asks the question: What is the use or purpose of A or B?

57 Function -- the positive consequence of an element of society stabilizes society

58 Dysfunction -- the negative consequence of an element of society destabilizes society

59 Example: Cars Function? Dysfunction?

60 Manifest function -- the intended and recognized function Latent function -- the unintended and unrecognized function

61 Cars … Manifest function? Latent function?

62 Conflict Perspective: Asks the question: How is A pitted against B, and why?

63 Conflict Perspective: Society is divided between haves and have-nots Conflict leads to social change

64 Conflict Perspective: Looks at who has power and who does not. How did those in power get it and how do they keep it?

65 Conflict Perspective: Who does not have power and how are they trying to get it? What obstacles stand in their way from succeeding?

66 Interactionist Perspective: Asks the question: How is A related to B?

67 Interactionist Perspective: Looks at how individuals relate to one another.

68 Interactionist Perspective: An area if interest is understanding the meaning that people attach to their own and others actions.

69 Symbolic Interaction

70

71 Social Phenomenon -- an act or occurrence in human society that can be observed and studied Notes:

72 Variable -- a characteristic that can change from one individual (or group) to another (opposite of constant)

73 Correlation -- when a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable AB

74 Causation -- when a change in one brings about a change in another variable. AB

75 Ex: Smoking & Lung Cancer This is a direct or a positive correlation

76 Ex: Amount of Homework & Stress Does one cause the other?

77 Ex: Exercise & Heart Disease This is an inverse or a negative correlation

78 Ex: Hospitalization & Death Does one cause the other?

79 Hospitalization Death NO! A third variable causes both! Serious Illness

80 When a third variable causes both, this is called a spurious correlation.


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