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Sociology -- the scientific study of human social relationships
WHAT IS SOCIAL?
Social -- interaction between two or more people
Asocial -- not social, not interacting with othersEither by choice … … or by being left out
Anti-social -- negative interaction or avoidance of interactionKEEP OUT
Pseudo-social -- appears to be social, but isn’t
Early Sociologists A Brief Review
Theorists of SociologyComte Durkheim Marx Spencer Weber 1
Auguste Comte Considered the founder of SociologyCoined the term “sociology”
Comte coined term “Sociology”Socious- companion (Latin) Logos- study of (Greek) 3
Theorists of Sociology Auguste Comte-French Philosopher, interested in finding solutions to the chaos of the French Revolution 2
Comte believed that sociologists should be concerned with two main concepts:Order & Change
Comte Social Statics constants non-changing principles life and deathman v. nature 4
Comte Social Dynamics change attitudes and acceptable behaviors 5
Auguste Comte Practiced “cerebral hygiene”
Comte Positivism- all science should be value free and objective 6
Karl Marx Not really a sociologist, but a social philosopher
Karl Marx Believed that class conflict led to social changeInfluenced the modern conflict theory
Theorists of Sociology Karl Marx (1818-1883)not a sociologist but had a profound affect on sociology (and history) 7
importance of economics in everyday life and in historyMarx- Economic Determinism importance of economics in everyday life and in history 8
Concerned with class conflictMarx- Concerned with class conflict Worker v. Capitalist 9
Felt that any historical change would involve conflict between the workers and capitalistsMarx 10
Organic Totalitity Marx-society similar to a human body- each part performs a function many parts make up the whole 11
Herbert Spencer Was strongly influenced by Charles DarwinBelieved no steps should be taken to correct society’s problems
Herbert Spencer Coined the phrase “Survival of the Fittest”His theory is called “Social Darwinism”
Herbert Spencer Society is made up of interdependent parts 12
Emile Durkheim First sociologist to systematically apply the scientific method to the study of society
Emile Durkheim Greatly influenced the modern Functionalist theory
Emile Durkheim- Thought only the overt should be studiedNot- thoughts, feelings or emotions Believed that everything has numerous functions 14
Emile Durkheim- functionsManifest Function- the intended or primary purpose of an object transportation Latent Function- the unintended purpose of an object status symbol 16
Max Weber Studied the effects of society on the individualInfluenced the modern Inter-actionist theory
Max Weber Verstehen -- essentially seeing a situation through someone else’s eyes
Interested in groups within society, not just society as a wholeMax Weber- Interested in groups within society, not just society as a whole 17
Max Weber- Verstehen understanding the meaning others attach to their actions 18
… And now for something new ...
C. Wright Mills No social study is complete until it deals with the “intersection” of History and Biography H t i s r y Biography
This “intersection” is the connection between the larger world (history) ...… and our personal lives (biography)
Sociological Imagination… can therefore be defined as the ability to perceive the connection between your per-sonal life and the larger world around you.
Sociological ImaginationMills said that the researcher must follow three lines of questioning to utilize sociological imagination:
What is the structure of the society as a whole?What are its essential components? How are they interrelated? How does this society differ from others?
Where does this society stand in human history?How is it changing? How is it affected by the historical period in which it exists?
What varieties of people prevail in this society?What are the men and women in this society like? Who are the “winners” and how are these people selected or formed in this society?
Q. Which theorist developed the idea of “Social Darwinism”?Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist developed the idea of “Social Darwinism”? 19
Q. Which theorist developed the idea of “Social Darwinism”? Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist developed the idea of “Social Darwinism”? A. Herbert Spencer 19
Q. Who coined the term “sociology”?Theorist Evaluation Q. Who coined the term “sociology”? 20
Q. Who coined the term “sociology”? A. Auguste ComteTheorist Evaluation Q. Who coined the term “sociology”? A. Auguste Comte 20
Q. Which theorist emphasized class conflict?Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist emphasized class conflict? 21
Q. Which theorist emphasized class conflict? A. Karl MarxTheorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist emphasized class conflict? A. Karl Marx 21
Q. Which theorist is responsible for the idea of verstehen?Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist is responsible for the idea of verstehen? 22
Q. Which theorist is responsible for the idea of verstehen? Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist is responsible for the idea of verstehen? A. Max Weber 22
Q. Which theorist applied the scientific method to sociology?Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist applied the scientific method to sociology? 23
Q. Which theorist applied the scientific method to sociology? Theorist Evaluation Q. Which theorist applied the scientific method to sociology? A. Emile Durkheim 23
… And now for the Sociological Theoretical Perspectives ...
Current Sociological TheoriesFunctionalist Perspective: Asks the question: “What is the use or purpose of A or B?”
Current Sociological TheoriesFunction -- the positive consequence of an element of society stabilizes society
Current Sociological TheoriesDysfunction -- the negative consequence of an element of society destabilizes society
Current Sociological TheoriesExample: Cars Function? Dysfunction?
Current Sociological TheoriesManifest function -- the intended and recognized function Latent function -- the unintended and unrecognized function
Current Sociological TheoriesCars … Manifest function? Latent function?
Current Sociological TheoriesConflict Perspective: Asks the question: “How is A pitted against B, and why?”
Current Sociological TheoriesConflict Perspective: Society is divided between “haves” and “have-nots” Conflict leads to social change
Current Sociological TheoriesConflict Perspective: Looks at who has power and who does not. How did those in power get it and how do they keep it?
Current Sociological TheoriesConflict Perspective: Who does not have power and how are they trying to get it? What obstacles stand in their way from succeeding?
Current Sociological TheoriesInteractionist Perspective: Asks the question: “How is A related to B?”
Current Sociological TheoriesInteractionist Perspective: Looks at how individuals relate to one another.
Current Sociological TheoriesInteractionist Perspective: An area if interest is understanding the meaning that people attach to their own and others’ actions.
Current Sociological TheoriesSymbolic Interaction
Correlation & Causation
Notes: Social Phenomenon -- an act or occurrence in human society that can be observed and studied
Variable -- a characteristic that can change from one individual (or group) to another (opposite of “constant”)
Correlation -- when a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable
Causation -- when a change in one brings about a change in another variable.
Ex: Smoking & Lung Cancer This is a direct or a positive correlation
Does one cause the other?Ex: Amount of Homework & Stress Does one cause the other?
Ex: Exercise & Heart DiseaseThis is an inverse or a negative correlation
Does one cause the other?Ex: Hospitalization & Death Does one cause the other?
NO! A third variable causes both!Hospitalization Death Serious Illness NO! A third variable causes both!
When a third variable causes both, this is called a spurious correlation.
Sociologist, Sociological Methods & Sociological Theory.
Founders and Pioneers of Sociology
Bell Ringer Define “sociology” in your own words..
Sociology: Then and Now
The Sociological Point of View Sociology: Then and Now
The Early Sociologists Review Quiz!!. Q1: Described social dynamics as forces for change and conflict in society.
Are there Aliens in Pine Bush? List three (3) possible explanations for this local issue.
Sociology Introductory Topics.
Sociology: Then and Now Pages 9-17
Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method
Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e
Chapter 1: Foundations of Sociology Foundations of Sociology.
People & Perspectives Foundations of Sociology. Father of Sociology Auguste Comte 1798 – 1857 Inspired by French Revolution Social statics (constants)
SociologyChapter 1 The Sociological Point of View Preview Section 1: Examining Social LifeExamining Social Life Section 2: Sociology: Then and NowSociology:
Social Structure And Social Interaction. What is Sociology? Systematic, scientific study of human society scientific evidence Relies on scientific evidence—helps.
Examining Social Life Chapter 1 – Section 1.
An Invitation to Sociology
Early Sociologists and Perspectives…
Chapter 1 section 2. Theories & perspectives… A THEORY is an explanation of how something works. A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE is a general set of assumptions.
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