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EEA 15-16 March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting - Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "EEA 15-16 March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting - Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting - Introduction - Jean-Louis Weber EEA/AIR3

2 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Outline Integrated assessment of environment and sustainable development: oPlatform for Integrated Spatial Assessment of Land, Biodiversity & Water oEnvironmental Accounts for Integrating Environmental, Economic & Social Data Land & Ecosystem Accounts (LEAC) Ecosystem accounts/ Natural capital accounts oAnalytical framework oData issue Agenda

3 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Platform for Integrated Spatial Assessment of Land, Biodiversity & Water, based on Corine Land Cover

4 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Environmental Accounts for Integrating Environmental, Economic & Social Data Production, Consumption Income & Capital Accounts Social Accounting Matrixes Natural Capital Accounts Depletion, Degradation & Formation of Natural Capital Distribution of Income & Consumption Patterns Ownership of Natural Assets Use of Free Goods & Services

5 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Environmental accounts: 5 key policy questions 1.Cost of environmental protection the burden issue oCost for public budgets: financing of protection (incl. administration and research) oCost for companies: effects on economic competitiveness 2.Environmental performance of the economy the decoupling issue oCompliance to national emission standards, respect of international conventions oDistances to targets, economic and technological options oUse of scarce resource oSustainability of consumption patterns 3.Cost of insufficient environmental protection the externalities issue oDepletion of renewable resources (forest, fisheries, water…) oDegradation of natural assets (forests, fisheries, soil, water, ecosystems…) oImpacts on human health and well being oCosts of remediation (instead of protection…) 4.Conservation of comparative advantages the natural capital issue oReserves (ownership, access, operation) oEconomic rents on natural resources (depletion…) oViability of living/cycling natural capital, continuity of ecosystem services oAdaptability to change (global market, climate change, technology) 5.Assessment of policies the effectiveness/efficiency issue oEfficiency/effectiveness of environmental policies and instruments oEfficiency/effectiveness of environmental sector policies (agriculture, transport…) oEnvironmental impact assessment of social and economic policies oIncorporation of environmental concerns in the multiple levels of public and private decision-making (participation, awareness, corporate accounting)

6 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Economic-environmental accounts (seea2003) National accounts: oEconomic natural assets (Sub-soil, forest (managed), agriculture land…) oEnvironmental protection expenditures Hybrid accounts: oConsumption of natural resource by sectors/branches oEmissions by sectors/branches (NAMEA…) Material flows accounts Natural assets accounts oForests (incl. native) oFisheries oWater oLand & ecosystems Pricing and valuation

7 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Land & Ecosystem Accounts (LEAC) Part of the SEEA 2003 (Integrated System of Environmental and Economic Accounting) Accounts in monetary AND in physical units Tested in Europe by UNECE, Eurostat and EEA (France, UK, Germany, European coast, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania) EU-wide implementation of land cover accounts with CLC2000 in 2004

8 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Land and ecosystem accounts… …measure stocks as well as change due to gains and losses (flows) Land cover account, Comunidad de Madrid, Source: Corine land cover Land COVER accounts are implemented at the EEA from CLC2000 …are made of Land Cover Accounts Land Use Accounts Ecosystem Accounts

9 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Land cover: an image of both land use & ecosystems Land cover change: clues of conflicts and degradation

10 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Integration in SEEAs Land & Ecosystem Accounts CORE LAND COVER ACCOUNT ECOSYSTEM ACCOUNTS Soil Flora & Fauna Water system Atmosphere/ Climate Ecosystem services Ecosystem potentials Integrity, health & viability Vulnerability LAND USE ACCOUNTS Land use economic & social functions Artificiality of land Intensity of use Production & Consumption Natural Assets Population Infrastructures & Technologies

11 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Natura 2000 sites Rivers (p.m. Wetlds, lakes) Landscape Natural Potential EEA/Land Accounts Project Provisional results (Nov. 2004) Example of spatial integration N2000 & Agriculture Cultivation of marginal land Farmland abandonment Portugal-Alentejo Spain - Huelva Spain – Huelva

12 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Policy questions (JNO) Natura 2000 on the map and how is it nestled among landscape features? What does this mean for the ecological functionality of the network and the sustainable conservation and management of the composed habitats? Natura 2000 is it under pressure? Is the quality of air, water and soil in Natura 2000 sites according to the requirements for the favourable conservation status of the sites? What does Natura 2000 mean for the environmental conditions in the neighbourhood of the sites? Are land-use practises in the neighbourhood of Natura 2000 sites in agreement with the site objectives? Natura 2000 and infrastructure goes it together? Where is landscape fragmentation hampering achievement of the objectives of Natura 2000? Do mitigation and compensation measures work? How is biodiversity in agricultural landscapes distributed? How does this coincide with Less Favourable Areas, areas with environmental restrictions and intensification and land abandonment trends? What kind of agri-environmental measures are applied and where? To what extent is high nature value farmland part of Natura 2000 and what is the agricultural practise? How are forest biodiversity and ecosystem structures distributed over Europe? How does this coincide with the forestry practices? Which forests are part of Natura 2000 and what is the management practise? How are infrastructure projects co-financed by the EU through the Structural funds distributed over Europe? What is the nature of these plans and what kind of landscape and ecological features are potentially impacted? To what extent do these plans overlap Natura 2000 sites and areas of high nature value?

13 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Integration of DPSIR within the ecosystem accounting framework: e.g. Wetlands *

14 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Ecosystem accounts can be established for: Individual ecosystems and ecosystem types (statistical classes) oe.g. salt marshes of West Mediterranean oEuropean wetlands oThe coastal lagoon of Thau (FR) odry grassland in Continental lowlands olarge European rivers Geographical systems such as ecozones, eco-complexes, ecological corridors, (small) river basins... oe.g. the Danube Delta o…o… Management or synthesis units such as designated areas for nature conservation, river basins, programme areas, regions… oe.g. Natura 2000 sites, Natural parks oRamsar sites oRiver basin districts…

15 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Analytical framework Stocks of ecosystems accounts: physical units o in first instance, geographical objects from CLC & rivers e-map o additional features/ details (e.g. EUNIS) can be overlaid to the CLC map or integrated in accounts on a statistical basis oadditional dimensions: biomass, energy, volume, srkm (rivers…) Diagnosis of ecosystem health: distress of ecosystem syndrome o stability of substrates (connectivity, fragmentation, patchiness…) o nutrient cycling (productivity, nutrient loss and force-feeding…) o species composition many table for various approaches of the same reality; not all tables need to be filled in; selection according to data Balance of ecosystem wealth : physical units ocalculated in physical terms oStocks of ecosystems x Health/Distress coefficients Natural capital accounts: physical & monetary units omarketed and non marketed ecosystem assets oecosystem goods and services Stress on ecosystems tables : pressure (s) o(generally) combination of several pressures omapped at the scale of land use accounts oLinkages to NAMEA, MFA…

16 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting The Ecosystem Distress Syndrome paradigm David Rapport et al Given that regional ecosystems are unique and thus may differ considerably in their normal range of primary and secondary productivity, species composition, diversity, and nutrient cycling, and given that each system is exposed to unique combinations of stresses, it might be expected that patterns of response to stresses will be highly variable and unpredictable. Therefore, it is surprising to discover remarkable similarities in the response of ecosystems to stress. Stressed ecosystems are characterized by a distress syndrome that is indicated not only by reduced biodiversity and altered primary and secondary productivity but also by increased disease prevalence, reduced efficiency of nutrient cycling, increased dominance of exotic species, and increased dominance by smaller, short-lived opportunistic species.

17 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting EDS simplified model Ecosystem Distress Syndrome is common to most types of ecosystems and stress conditions Limited number of symptoms of distress: oDisruption of the pattern of nutrient cycling from vertical direction (e.g. between biota and substrate) to horizontal direction (e.g. force-feeding by nutrients, losses of organic matter, acceleration of sedimentation…) oAdaptative strategies by opportunistic or introduced species (characterized by high reproductive rates, short life cycles and small size) oDestabilization of substates (Loss of keystone habitats, changes in pattern and connectivity of habitat patches, loss of structural complexity, alteration of hydrologic patterns…) Application to managed ecosystems oself-sustaining without subsidies, input; economically viable; oable to sustain healthy human communities

18 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Natural capital Production is not only based on man-made capital but as much on human & social capital and natural capital Human-made capital: oProduced tangible assets such as buildings, machinery, infrastructures, cultivated assets (livestock and plantations) oProduced intangible assets such as computer software, results of research, discoveries oFinancial assets Human & social capital: oindividual and collective skills and aptitudes (in relation to population, health, education, culture, participation, social cohesion, institutions…) Natural capital: oEconomic natural assets – land, subsoil assets, non-cultivated biological resources and water resources – over which ownership may be established and transferred oStocks of natural resources not considered as economic assets – fish stocks, most of rivers, aquifers, lakes, primary forests, natural land, glaciers – over which no ownership is established and transferred oEcosystems, which deliver ecosystem services that contribute to production and/or directly to human well-being

19 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Ecosystem services Ecosystems provide services that: moderate weather extremes and their impacts disperse seeds mitigate drought and floods protect people from the suns harmful ultraviolet rays cycle and move nutrients protect stream and river channels and coastal shores from erosion detoxify and decompose wastes control agricultural pests maintain biodiversity generate and preserve soils and renew their fertility contribute to climate stability purify the air and water regulate disease carrying organisms pollinate crops and natural vegetation (Ecological Society of America, 2000)

20 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Spatial Integration of Environmental & Socio-Economic Data Collection Mapping Sampling Socio- Economic Statistics Individual Sites Monitoring

21 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Integrated land cover change and ecosystem monitoring & accounting T T+3 T+7 T+10 1/ (Corine Land Cover, EU/Countries, Regions, Basins, Ecological landscape) 1/ (Pan-European, Global, Vegetation/ Humidity…) 1/50 or (Wetlands, Dry-grasland, Forests, Ecological Corridors, Natura2000 sites… Fauna, Flora, Physico-Chemical parameters In situ monitoring Fauna, Flora, Physico-Chemical parameters Fauna, Flora, Physico-Chemical parameters

22 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Integration of land & water, e.g. soil humidity Soil humidity can be efficiently measured by combining space and in situ monitoring and modelling. The parameter is used for measuring, modelling and assessing: oevapo-transpiration owater stress on ecosystems owater stress on crops ocrops yields oseasonal water deficits oextension of irrigation odesertification processes obuffering capacity of soil orisks of fire orisks of flood

23 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Integration of land & water assessments: accounts, sampling and modelling N – Balance in Kg/ha for Europe (EU 15) calculated at catchments level using the NUTS 3 census database and CLC (JRC with NOPOLU) Eurowaternet sampling based on hydrological monitoring and CLC Water accounts of the quantity and quality of the resource, of polluting emissions to water and economic costs

24 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Index classes : 1 – excellent status 2 – good status 3 – moderately perturbed 4 – perturbed 5 – heavily perturbed Ecological status of European rivers considering fish assessment (FAME)

25 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting We should discuss of… The framework Improvements to the land cover database: oClassification issues: EUNIS, CLC level 4/5 ??? oSmall and linear objects Use of existing maps Use of space monitoring (in addition to CLC) Use of in situ databases How to start… What to do next…

26 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Agenda 15 March, 10:00 (Fontana Room – 4th floor) From land cover accounts to ecosystems accounts: introduction (20mn) Ecosystem accounting in 2005: wetlands, dry grassland and rivers; objectives and organisation of work (20mn) Background analysis: Improvement of spatial characterisation of wetlands (30mn) Improvement of spatial characterisation of dry-mesic grassland (30mn) Stratification: Biogeographical regions and landscape types (30mn) Corridors, habitats and species (30mn) 13:00-14:00 Lunch Testing ecosystem accounts: Implementation of pilot ecosystem accounts in 2005: pilot framework & priorities (3 h) Draft framework and priority tables for wetlands Draft framework and priority tables for dry and mesic grassland Draft framework and priority tables for a scoping study on the Danube delta. 16 March, 09:00 (Room 328 – 3rd floor) Round table on data issues & solutions (1 h) Reference & background maps: needs and availability Access to databases: focus on species Use of statistics Objectives & ways of cooperation (1 h) SEBI2010, Bio-IMPS, HNV, PEEN, SENSOR, GMES Future steps and wrap up (1 h) End of meeting 13:00

27 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting

28 EEA March 2005 Expert meeting on landscape analysis & ecosystem accounting Green background pattern/ Natural potentials from CLC/Corilis Version 1 All CLC types with pasture, forest and semi-natural or natural land Neighbourhood: smoothing radius of 10 km Values from 0 to 100


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