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Technical workshop on emissions from aviation and maritime transport Oslo, Norway, 4/5 October 2007 Emissions from international aviation and maritime.

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Presentation on theme: "Technical workshop on emissions from aviation and maritime transport Oslo, Norway, 4/5 October 2007 Emissions from international aviation and maritime."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technical workshop on emissions from aviation and maritime transport Oslo, Norway, 4/5 October 2007 Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport and the climate change negotiations - The UNFCCC treatment Stelios Pesmajoglou United Nations Climate Change secretariat

2 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE 36.3% 43.4% (Source IEA) CO 2 World emissions from international aviation and maritime transport

3 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (Source IEA) CO 2 emissions: Annex I and non-Annex I Parties Year:2004

4 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (Source IEA) CO 2 emissions: Annex I and non-Annex I Parties Year:2004

5 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE A lot of political attention Addressing emissions from international aviation and maritime transport is being considered within the UNFCCC, ICAO and IMO processes Reduction options include: Voluntary measures Market mechanisms Fiscal measures Indexing approaches Industry is starting to react: GGG Greener engines Biofuels …

6 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE The oldest agenda item in the UNFCCC process Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport has been on the agenda of the UNFCCC process even before the Convention entered into force Governments recognized: The significance of international transport for the global economy (moving people and goods) The complexities associated with developing national legislation to address international emissions (majority of fuel used outside national borders – limited jurisdiction) Result was the exclusion from national totals

7 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Convention provisions Decision 9/2 (INC, 1994): In providing information on emissions from international aviation and marine bunker fuels, Parties should include such data, in a separate category, in their inventories of emissions on the basis of fuel sold and should, as far as possible, not include them in total national emissions Decision 4/CP.1 (1995) The COP decided that the SBSTA and SBI, taking fully into account ongoing work in Governments and international organizations, including the IMO and the ICAO, address the issue of the allocation and control of emissions from international bunker fuels, and report on this work to the Conference of the Parties at its second session

8 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Convention provisions SBSTA 4 (Dec. 1996) Noted three separate issues relating to emissions from international aviation and maritime transport: Adequate and consistent inventories, Allocation of emissions, and Control options. Considered eight options for allocation, out of which, five should be the basis for further work on this issue. Recognized that option 1 (no allocation) outlines the responsibility of the intl community Took note of work by ICAO and IMO on policies and measures and noted the role of ICAO and IMO in addressing the control of international bunker fuel emissions, and the opportunity for Parties to work through these bodies.

9 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Kyoto Protocol provisions Decision 2/CP.3, paragraph 4: The COP recalls that, under the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, emissions based upon fuel sold to ships or aircraft engaged in international transport should not be included in national totals, but reported separately; =>Emissions from both transport activities are not subject to the reduction/limitation targets The COP urges the SBSTA to further elaborate on the inclusion of these emissions in the overall GHG inventories of Parties.

10 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Kyoto Protocol provisions Kyoto Protocol (Article 2.2) The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation or reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol from aviation and marine bunkers fuels, working through the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, respectively

11 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Since Kyoto SBSTA 10: Special report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere prepared by the IPCC at the request of ICAO SBSTA 11 to 22: Methodological issues relating to the estimation and reporting of GHG emissions from international aviation and maritime transport -> Input to the IPCC 2006 Guidelines AT SBSTA22, ICAO/UNFCCC secretariats arranged for presentations on modelling results (AERO, AERO2K, SAGE) SBSTA 22 to 26 Unable to agree on conclusions

12 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Cooperation between secretariats Mandate for close cooperation between the secretariats of UNFCCC, ICAO and IMO: Regular participation in UNFCCC, ICAO and IMO meetings, Regular reports on progress made within UNFCCC, ICAO and IMO processes, Organization of expert meetings to consider methodological issues that were also relevant for the work of the IPCC Participation in the development of guidance for an emissions trading scheme for international aviation Increased awareness of the issues of common interest among experts and delegates participating in the UNFCCC, ICAO and IMO processes, but does not solve the problems of lack of coordination at the national level

13 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Status of reporting (Annex I Parties) Emissions of the main three GHGs (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O)) and of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds and sulphur dioxide Estimates of emissions from international aviation: 35 Annex I Parties Estimates of emissions from international maritime transport: 25 Annex I Parties General compliance with the provisions of the IPCC Guidelines and the UNFCCC reporting guidelines (all gases and all years)

14 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Status of reporting (non-Annex I Parties) Primarily emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport: 55 Parties General compliance with UNFCCC reporting Guidelines (no detailed assessment can be made about the compliance with the IPCC Guidelines since there is no review process for non- Annex I Parties)

15 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Reporting issues In general, the quality and quantity of GHG inventory information reported by Annex I Parties have improved Result of the technical review of GHG inventories Improvements relate to both the completeness of the estimates provided and the provision of more detailed methodological and supporting information Some of the most common findings by review experts relate to: Need for more information on the distinction between domestic and international fuel use, and Need for more information on methodological issues such as selection of emission factors

16 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Domestic vs. international emissions One of the biggest challenges: obtaining disaggregated fuel data Depends on national circumstances In some countries different national agencies use different definitions of international transport No uniform approach among Annex I Parties - various ways used by national statistical agencies: Information on fuel taxation Information on the flag or country of registration of carriers Information received from oil companies of from operators Data on total amount of fuel used and surrogate data, e.g. LTO cycles and default fuel consumption factors Fuel expenditures and information on the flag of carriers Problems of national statistical systems have led (in some cases) to the allocation of all fuel used to either international or domestic transport

17 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE International and domestic aviation CO2 emissions (Mt) for all Annex I Parties* * Excl. Russian Federation

18 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE International aviation CO2 emissions (Mt) for selected Annex I Parties

19 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE International and domestic aviation CO2 emissions (Mt) for selected Annex I Parties

20 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Closing remarks Emissions from international aviation and maritime transport are increasing and will continue to do so, if no measures are taken Currently account for a small portion of total GHG emissions, BUT, if left unabated, their relative importance will increase in a mitigation scenario for other sectors Various options are currently being considered within the ICAO and IMO processes Under the UNFCCC, addressing these emissions has been mentioned as one of the key elements to consider under a future (post-2012) regime

21 UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE Thank you For more information: On web: By


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