Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:
1 Copyright Notice!This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.
2 Microorganisms to Multicellular Organisms Animal CirculationMicroorganisms to Multicellular Organisms
3 Size Matters: Surface/Volume Ratio unfold the cube’s surfaces1 cmvolume = 1 cm3S/V=6.0surface = 6 cm2unfold the cube’s surfaces2 cmDB25020.jpgvolume = 8 cm3S/V=3.0surface = 24 cm2Larger organisms have less surface area relative to volume than do smaller organisms. Materials inside have less contact with surface, so circulation inside is needed!Conclusion?
4 Circulation of materials in the body Size matters: microorganisms use simple diffusion and osmosisOccasionally amplified by facilitated diffusion or active transportOr vesicular transport!Altering shape may make diffusion uptake a shorter, faster pathosmosisdiffusionactive transportCyclosis in the cell helps circulate materials taken upvesicular transport
5 Circulation in an Amoeba which has a shell… This is another example of eukaryotic cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming) to facilitate gas exchange and nutrient exchange in larger cells
6 In Stentor, a narrow elongate shape permits faster diffusion. In Stentor, a narrow elongate shape permits faster diffusion.Myonemes along body wall allow shape contraction to mix cell contents.Exterior circulation by cilia helps move fresh water for gas exchange, nutrients closer to body, for exchange.
12 This is a colony of polyps with tentacles for feeding The yellow-brown color is due to endosymbiotic dinoflagellatesCnidarians have just the two tissue layers, so internal circulation is not critical, exchanges are diffusion
13 Polyplacophora: chitons The most-primitive mollusc has 8 valves (plates) protecting its soft tissues beneath. The chiton foot attaches to rocks and the animal uses its radula to scrape organic material from the rock surfaces.
14 After working hard to remove the “suck rock” organism from the rock, the ventral surface of the chiton shows the obvious mollusc features.gillsfootmouth(radula inside)
15 This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves).dorsal aortagonadheartvalve platespericardial cavity(coelom)hemocoelventricleradulaauriclemantlemouthanusfootdigestive glandstomachnephridiumnephridioporeventral nerve cord(not shown)gonopore
16 How does the bivalve know you are swimming by? Eyes! Evaginated gills provide increased surface area for gas exchange
17 Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste. This cartoon is shows a plane of section perpendiular to the previous one.hinge and ligamentThe foot can push a bivalve through sediments.The food-trapping gills are used for gas exchange.The heart pumps the blood into the hemocoel bathing the tissues. It goes through the gills for gas exchange. The blood then returns to the heart.shellheartnephridiumintestinemantlegonadgillsfootNephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste.
18 Open Circulatory Systems Fig Page 995Hemocyanin and hemoglobin are present in this groupHemocyanin is plesiomorphic and less efficient than hemoglobin
20 Hemolymph Circulation in Dorsal Vessel of Insects
21 Lumbriculus variegatus : California mudworm This is an aquatic oligochaete annelidMouth feeds in sedimentsTail extends toward water surface for gas exchangeBody walls nearly transparent for easy observationFor example: may count pulses of blood in dorsal vessel
35 Blood pressure varies with distance from heart BP is usually measured in the radial arteryaortaarteriessystolic pressure12010080604020When a sphygmomanometer gives a result of 120/80 mm Hg, it is interpreted as close to normal for men.arteriolesmean pressurediastolic pressureBlood pressure (mm Hg)capillariesveinulesveinsvena cavaDistance traveled by blood from left ventricle
46 Iron is a macroelement for vertebrates! Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin at the chelation site of iron (Fe) in heme:H3CHCCH2CCnotice the resonating bond system to help trap the oxygen molecule in large electron cloudHCCHCCNCO=O..CH3CCCCH3NFeNH2CCCCHCH2CCNCH2HCCCCHCOOHCCCH2CH3CH2COOHIron is a macroelement for vertebrates!
47 Gas exchanges at the blood-tissue interface CO2O2tissue cell cytosolCO2CO2+ H2OHCO H+capillary plasmared blood cellCO2+ H2OHCO3- + H+H+ + HbO2HHb + O2CO2 + HbO2HbCO2 + O2
48 circulation direction CO2CO2O2H2OHbO2HbO2HbO2H2OCO2CO2H2OHbO2HCO3-H+HbO2lungsHCO3-H+tissuesHHbHCO3-HHbHHbHCO3-HCO3-O2O2O2O2
49 Dissociation curves for hemoglobin explain oxygen exchange 10080604020Unloading to tissues at normal pHOxygen unloaded at low pH (high CO2)Low blood pHNormal blood pHPercent saturation of Hb with O2ExerciseRestLungsOxygen partial pressure (mm Hg)
50 Percent saturation of Hb with O2 A placental mammal fetus has fetal hemoglobin with higher affinity for oxygen than the mother’s hemoglobin in the placenta10080604020Unloading to fetal tissuestransfer of oxygen from maternal to fetal hemoglobin in the placentaPercent saturation of Hb with O2FetusMotherOxygen partial pressure (mm Hg)
52 Percent saturation of Hb with O2 The mammal body tissues possess myoglobin, which has an even higher affinity for oxygen:10080604020Unloading to fetal tissue myoglobintransfer of oxygen from maternal to fetal hemoglobin in the placentaPercent saturation of Hb with O2FetusMotherOxygen partial pressure (mm Hg)Myoglobin in tissues has higher oxygen affinity than hemoglobin