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Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Notice! This PowerPoint slide set is copyrighted by Ross Koning and is thereby preserved for all to use from plantphys.info for as long as that website is available. Images lacking photo credits are mine and, as long as you are engaged in non-profit educational missions, you have my permission to use my images and slides in your teaching. However, please notice that some of the images in these slides have an associated URL photo credit to provide you with the location of their original source within internet cyberspace. Those images may have separate copyright protection. If you are seeking permission for use of those images, you need to consult the original sources for such permission; they are NOT mine to give you permission.

2 Animal Circulation Microorganisms to Multicellular Organisms

3 Size Matters: Surface/Volume Ratio volume = 1 cm 3 volume = 8 cm 3 surface = 6 cm 2 surface = 24 cm 2 S/V=6.0 S/V=3.0 Larger organisms have less surface area relative to volume than do smaller organisms. Materials inside have less contact with surface, so circulation inside is needed! 1 cm unfold the cubes surfaces 2 cm unfold the cubes surfaces Conclusion?

4 Size matters: microorganisms use simple diffusion and osmosis Occasionally amplified by facilitated diffusion or active transport Or vesicular transport! Circulation of materials in the body osmosis diffusion active transport vesicular transport Altering shape may make diffusion uptake a shorter, faster path Cyclosis in the cell helps circulate materials taken up

5 Circulation in an Amoeba which has a shell… This is another example of eukaryotic cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming) to facilitate gas exchange and nutrient exchange in larger cells

6 In Stentor, a narrow elongate shape permits faster diffusion. Myonemes along body wall allow shape contraction to mix cell contents. Exterior circulation by cilia helps move fresh water for gas exchange, nutrients closer to body, for exchange.

7 Sponge Morphology

8 Basic Sponge Anatomy: Fundamentally two-layered body wall Ostia surrounded by porocyte permit entry of water and particulates Flagellated cells feed on particulates and move water out osculum

9 Sponge choanocyte: feeding flagellated cell with microvilli collar flagellum microvilli

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12 This is a colony of polyps with tentacles for feeding The yellow-brown color is due to endosymbiotic dinoflagellates

13 Lumbriculus variegatus : California mudworm This is an aquatic oligochaete annelid Mouth feeds in sediments Tail extends toward water surface for gas exchange Body walls nearly transparent for easy observation For example: may count pulses of blood in dorsal vessel /F00005.html

14 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Circulation in Lumbricus terrestris (showing just the left arches) aortic arch What is NOT shown well in this cartoon?Gas exchange!

15 Respiratory/Circulatory Systems Fig 44.1 Page 979 Ventilation system

16 Polyplacophora: chitons The most-primitive mollusc has 8 valves (plates) protecting its soft tissues beneath. The chiton foot attaches to rocks and the animal uses its radula to scrape organic material from the rock surfaces.

17 lectures/animal%20diversity/protostomes/chiton_ventral_surface.jpg After working hard to remove the suck rock organism from the rock, the ventral surface of the chiton shows the obvious mollusc features. gills foot mouth (radula inside)

18 mouth radula valve plates gonad heart pericardial cavity (coelom) mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). auricle ventricle nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta The circulation system is open…

19 How does the bivalve know you are swimming by? Eyes! Evaginated gills provide increased surface area for gas exchange

20 This cartoon is shows a plane of section perpendiular to the previous one. The foot can push a bivalve through sediments. The food-trapping gills are used for gas exchange. The heart pumps the blood into the hemocoel bathing the tissues. It goes through the gills for gas exchange. The blood then returns to the heart. An open system. Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste. hinge and ligament nephridium mantle shell gills foot gonad intestine heart

21 Open Circulatory Systems Hemocyanin and hemoglobin are present in this group Hemocyanin is plesiomorphic and less efficient than hemoglobin Fig Page 995

22 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company In insects such as this grasshopper, circulation is an open system The blood of a grasshopper contains a hemolymph greenish with hemocyanin rather than the red hemoglobin for oxygen transport. The blood reenters the circulation system via the ostia for anterior flow. Seems inefficient for an active animal! Circulation is not for gas exchange; uses trachea system. Body movement increases rate when more nutrients are needed.

23 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Circulation system in mammal (Homo sapiens) absorbing nutrients gas exchange glucose control nitrogenous waste gas exchange nutrient exchange blood cell replacement muscular pump

24 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Blood movement within the four-chambered heart of vertebrates return from body …to lung …from lung …to body Note: arteries take blood away from the heart…veins return to heart The difference is NOT about whether the blood is oxygenated or not! tricuspid valve semilunar valve mitral valve

25 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Heart relaxes: atria filled by system pressure Atria contract: ventricles filled, valves close Ventricles contract: blood sent to lungs and body Heart relaxes: system pressure closes valves LUB DUB!!

26 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company initial instrinsic stimulus from pacemaker atrial contraction LUB DUB and Purkinje fibers ventricular contraction Frog Lab Exercise: neural and intrinsic control The sounds are the slamming of valves…contraction is silent!

27 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company An electrocardiogram (EKG): the electrical changes recorded from electrodes attached to the skin reveal the electrical activity of the heart. In abnormal heart behavior, this recording may reveal where trouble spots exist within the hearts electrical controls.

28 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Comparative structure of blood vessels Which of these has the greatest surface to volume ratio? High PressureLow Pressure Exchange

29 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company artery vein smooth muscle no valves less smooth muscle valves significant

30 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Valves in veins: check valves prevent back flow during heart cycles: Pressure Pulse Pressure Subsides Valves prevent backflow abnormal valve during atrial contraction varicose veins

31 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Blood clotting (thrombosis) forming initially in a veinule A thrombus that breaks free and moves through the rest of the circulation system is called a thromboembolus and can lodge in arterioles of the body resulting in pulmonary (lung) embolism, stroke (brain), or myocardial (heart) infarction. thrombus no flow blood flow

32 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Normal arteriole Arteriole occluded with fatty plaque Blood flow will be restricted, oxygenation will be reduced. If this were a coronary arteriole, even a small group of cells could completely cut off the flow (myocardial infarction). Atheroschloersis: hardening of the arteries plaque

33 Blood pressure varies with distance from heart mean pressure Distance traveled by blood from left ventricle aorta arteries arterioles capillaries veinules veins vena cava systolic pressure diastolic pressure Blood pressure (mm Hg) BP is usually measured in the radial artery When a sphygmomanometer gives a result of 120/80 mm Hg, it is interpreted as close to normal for men.

34 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Flow rate in blood vessels in a circulation system Branching explains why you dont get the thumb on the hose nozzle effect

35 Fig Page 1003 No cell is very far from capillary exchange!

36 Fig Page 997

37 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Pressure differentials across the capillary walls drive pinocytosis

38 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company The brain can selectively alter blood flow in tissues by sphincter muscles normal temperaturecold flushing of skin Or embarrassment

39 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Head blood vessels show extensive capillary beds in face

40 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Evolution of circulation systems among vertebrate classes or BIRD Homeotherms! Two capillary beds means slower flow, but gills are efficient Incomplete separation of two sides means mixing blood of different quality. Amphibians have skin exchange and reptiles have laminar flow.

41 Figure Page 998 Evolution of the Heart

42 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Note: What kind of circulation is shown in placenta? Human and Maternal/Fetal circulation artery or vein? artery or vein? capillary bed veinules arterioles shunts away from lungs Note: countercurent exchange

43 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Frog foot webbing capillaries come close to each body cell Human capillaries are only wide enough for one RBC to pass

44 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Capillary walls are a single endothelial celljoined at edges pinocytosis (vesicular transport) brings materials through capillary wall

45 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) and White Blood Cells

46 Figure page 985 Figure page 989

47 Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin at the chelation site of iron (Fe) in heme: Iron is a macroelement for vertebrates! H3CH3C CC C C C C C C C C C C CH C C C C HC CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 H2CH2C H3CH3C COOH CH 2 COOH CH 3 N N N N Fe notice the resonating bond system to help trap the oxygen molecule in a large electron cloud O=O..

48 Percent saturation of Hb with O Normal blood pH Oxygen partial pressure (mm Hg) Low blood pH Unloading to tissues at normal pH Oxygen unloaded at low pH (high CO 2 ) RestLungsExercise Dissociation curves for hemoglobin explain oxygen exchange circulation Tissues at

49 A placental mammal fetus has fetal hemoglobin with higher affinity for oxygen than the mothers hemoglobin in the placenta Myoglobin in tissues has higher oxygen affinity than hemoglobin Percent saturation of Hb with O Unloading to fetal tissues transfer of oxygen from maternal to fetal hemoglobin in the placenta Fetus Mother Oxygen partial pressure (mm Hg) Adult hemoglobin has 2 and 2 polypeptides. Fetal Hemoglobin has 2 and 2 polypeptides.

50 Figure Page 992 How is CO 2 carried by the blood?

51 tissue cell cytosol CO 2 O2O2 + H 2 OHCO H + CO 2 + H 2 OHCO H + CO 2 + HbO 2 H + + HbO 2 HHb + O 2 HbCO 2 + O 2 capillary plasma red blood cell Gas exchanges at the blood-tissue interface

52 O2 lungs tissues CO 2 H2OH2O HbO 2 H2OH2O O2O2 HHb HCO 3 - HHb O2O2 O2O2 HCO 3 - HbO 2 HCO 3 - H+H+ CO 2 H2OH2O HbO 2 CO 2 HbO 2 HCO 3 - H+H+ CO 2 O2O2 circulation direction

53 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

54 AnimalAltitude% RBC% Human Sea level 5,360 m 46% 60% 14% Sheep Sea level 4,700 m 35% 50% 15% Dog Sea level 4,540 m 35% 50% 15% Rabbit Sea level 5,340 m 35% 57% 22% Vicuña Sea level 4,700 m 30% 32% 2% Percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells

55 The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is a camelid inhabiting high- altitude regions of the Andes mountains. It is a relative of llama, alpaca, and guanaco…and interbreeding among these four is possible.

56 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company

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59 Circulation system in mammal (Homo sapiens) absorbing nutrients gas exchange glucose control nitrogenous waste gas exchange nutrient exchange blood cell replacement muscular pump

60 ©1996 Norton Presentation Maker, W. W. Norton & Company


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