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Animal Circulation Microorganisms to Multicellular Organisms
Size Matters: Surface/Volume Ratio volume = 1 cm 3 volume = 8 cm 3 surface = 6 cm 2 surface = 24 cm 2 S/V=6.0 S/V=3.0 Larger organisms have less surface area relative to volume than do smaller organisms. Materials inside have less contact with surface, so circulation inside is needed! 1 cm unfold the cubes surfaces 2 cm unfold the cubes surfaces Conclusion?
Size matters: microorganisms use simple diffusion and osmosis Occasionally amplified by facilitated diffusion or active transport Or vesicular transport! Circulation of materials in the body osmosis diffusion active transport vesicular transport Altering shape may make diffusion uptake a shorter, faster path Cyclosis in the cell helps circulate materials taken up
Circulation in an Amoeba which has a shell… This is another example of eukaryotic cyclosis (cytoplasmic streaming) to facilitate gas exchange and nutrient exchange in larger cells
In Stentor, a narrow elongate shape permits faster diffusion. Myonemes along body wall allow shape contraction to mix cell contents. Exterior circulation by cilia helps move fresh water for gas exchange, nutrients closer to body, for exchange.
Basic Sponge Anatomy: Fundamentally two-layered body wall Ostia surrounded by porocyte permit entry of water and particulates Flagellated cells feed on particulates and move water out osculum
This is a colony of polyps with tentacles for feeding The yellow-brown color is due to endosymbiotic dinoflagellates
Lumbriculus variegatus : California mudworm This is an aquatic oligochaete annelid Mouth feeds in sediments Tail extends toward water surface for gas exchange Body walls nearly transparent for easy observation For example: may count pulses of blood in dorsal vessel /F00005.html
Respiratory/Circulatory Systems Fig 44.1 Page 979 Ventilation system
Polyplacophora: chitons The most-primitive mollusc has 8 valves (plates) protecting its soft tissues beneath. The chiton foot attaches to rocks and the animal uses its radula to scrape organic material from the rock surfaces.
lectures/animal%20diversity/protostomes/chiton_ventral_surface.jpg After working hard to remove the suck rock organism from the rock, the ventral surface of the chiton shows the obvious mollusc features. gills foot mouth (radula inside)
mouth radula valve plates gonad heart pericardial cavity (coelom) mantle anus foot digestive gland nephridium stomach This cartoon shows a longitudinal slice of a chiton with the three principal parts: foot (locomotion or attachment), visceral mass (internal organs), and mantle (secretes valves). auricle ventricle nephridiopore gonopore hemocoel dorsal aorta The circulation system is open…
How does the bivalve know you are swimming by? Eyes! Evaginated gills provide increased surface area for gas exchange
This cartoon is shows a plane of section perpendiular to the previous one. The foot can push a bivalve through sediments. The food-trapping gills are used for gas exchange. The heart pumps the blood into the hemocoel bathing the tissues. It goes through the gills for gas exchange. The blood then returns to the heart. An open system. Nephridia cleanse the blood of nitrogenous waste. hinge and ligament nephridium mantle shell gills foot gonad intestine heart
Open Circulatory Systems Hemocyanin and hemoglobin are present in this group Hemocyanin is plesiomorphic and less efficient than hemoglobin Fig Page 995
Blood pressure varies with distance from heart mean pressure Distance traveled by blood from left ventricle aorta arteries arterioles capillaries veinules veins vena cava systolic pressure diastolic pressure Blood pressure (mm Hg) BP is usually measured in the radial artery When a sphygmomanometer gives a result of 120/80 mm Hg, it is interpreted as close to normal for men.
Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin at the chelation site of iron (Fe) in heme: Iron is a macroelement for vertebrates! H3CH3C CC C C C C C C C C C C CH C C C C HC CH 2 CH 3 CH 2 H2CH2C H3CH3C COOH CH 2 COOH CH 3 N N N N Fe notice the resonating bond system to help trap the oxygen molecule in a large electron cloud O=O..
Percent saturation of Hb with O Normal blood pH Oxygen partial pressure (mm Hg) Low blood pH Unloading to tissues at normal pH Oxygen unloaded at low pH (high CO 2 ) RestLungsExercise Dissociation curves for hemoglobin explain oxygen exchange circulation Tissues at
A placental mammal fetus has fetal hemoglobin with higher affinity for oxygen than the mothers hemoglobin in the placenta Myoglobin in tissues has higher oxygen affinity than hemoglobin Percent saturation of Hb with O Unloading to fetal tissues transfer of oxygen from maternal to fetal hemoglobin in the placenta Fetus Mother Oxygen partial pressure (mm Hg) Adult hemoglobin has 2 and 2 polypeptides. Fetal Hemoglobin has 2 and 2 polypeptides.
Figure Page 992 How is CO 2 carried by the blood?
tissue cell cytosol CO 2 O2O2 + H 2 OHCO H + CO 2 + H 2 OHCO H + CO 2 + HbO 2 H + + HbO 2 HHb + O 2 HbCO 2 + O 2 capillary plasma red blood cell Gas exchanges at the blood-tissue interface
O2 lungs tissues CO 2 H2OH2O HbO 2 H2OH2O O2O2 HHb HCO 3 - HHb O2O2 O2O2 HCO 3 - HbO 2 HCO 3 - H+H+ CO 2 H2OH2O HbO 2 CO 2 HbO 2 HCO 3 - H+H+ CO 2 O2O2 circulation direction