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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Closed and Open Circulatory Systems Closed system: Blood never leaves vessels. Blood travels through closed blood vessels Single heart Lymph travels through closed lymph vessels
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The Evolution of the Vertebrate Circulatory System Fish Two circulatory loops 1 circuit 2-chambered heart Frogs Gills Lung Turtles, lizards 2 circuits 3-chambered heart Lung 2 circuits “5-chambered” heart Crocodiles Lung 2 circuits 4-chambered heart Birds Lung 2 circuits 4-chambered heart Mammals Lung 2 circuits 4-chambered heart Body Three-chambered heart Ventricle divided into chambers A Atrium V Ventricle A V A V A A V A A V A V A V A V A V A V
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley The Human Heart Aorta Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein Left atrium Semilunar valves Atrioventricular valve Left ventricle Right atrium Atrioventricular valve Right ventricle Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava 6 Pulmonary circulation 4 1 2 5 3 Blood returns to heart from body, enters right atrium. Blood is pumped from right ventricle to lungs. Blood enters right ventricle. Systemic circulation Blood is pumped from left ventricle to body. Blood returns to left atrium from lungs. Blood enters left ventricle. 6. 4. 1. 2. 5. 3.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Partial Pressures of Gases Vary throughout the Human Circulatory System Pulmonary circulation Systemic circulation Venae cavae Pulmonary artery Aorta Blood leaving tissue capillaries P O 2 40 mm Hg P CO 2 45 mm Hg Pulmonary vein Tissues P O 2 40 mm Hg P CO 2 45 mm Hg Blood entering tissue capillaries P O 2 140 mm Hg P CO 2 40 mm Hg Inhaled air P O 2 160 mm Hg P CO 2 0.3 mm Hg Exhaled air P O 2 120 mm Hg P CO 2 27 mm Hg Blood entering alveolar capillaries P O 2 40 mm Hg P CO 2 45 mm Hg Blood leaving alveolar capillaries P O 2 104 mm Hg P CO 2 40 mm Hg Alveoli of lungs P O 2 104 mm Hg P CO 2 40 mm Hg
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Blood Pressure Changes during the Cardiac Cycle Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure Ventricular pressure Atrial pressure Atrioventricular valves open Aortic pressure Aortic valves closes Atrioventricular valves close Aortic valve opens Ventricular systoleVentricular diastole Cardiac cycle
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley EKGs Record Electrical Events Associated with Cardiac Muscle Contraction SA node activates atria AV node delay Electrical activity in atria Electrical activity in ventricles Ventricles recover
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Patterns in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on the walls of arteries, capillaries, and veins. Blood pressure drops dramatically as blood moves through the capillaries, because the total cross-sectional area of blood vessels in the circulatory system increases greatly. The drop in blood pressure decreases the rate of blood flow to allow sufficient time for gases, nutrients, and wastes to diffuse between tissues and blood in the capillaries. Falling blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the walls of the heart and the major arteries.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Blood Pressure Drops Dramatically in the Circulatory System From heartCapillariesReturn to heart Velocity Total area
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley Patterns in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow When baroreceptors detect a major decrease in blood pressure, they trigger electrical signals that change the heart’s output and vessel diameter: (1)Cardiac output is increased by an increase in both heart rate and the amount of blood pushed out by the ventricles. (2)Arterioles serving the capillaries of noncritical tissues such as the skin and intestines are constricted to divert blood to more critical organs. (3)The veins are constricted, shifting blood volume toward the heart and arteries to maintain blood pressure and flow to vital organs.
Chapter 23 Circulation The Circulatory System aids cells to –receive nutrients, exchange gases, and removes wastes. –Blood is used to transport these.
The Structure and Function of the Heart and Blood Vessels.
The Circulatory System The Structure and Function of the Heart and Blood Vessels.
Animal Anatomy & Physiology. Functions of the Cardiovascular System: delivers vital nutrients (e.g., oxygen) to all body cells eliminates waste products.
CIRCUITS AND THE CARDIAC CYCLE Pump It!. RECALL THE HEART A series of FOURS : 4 CHAMBERS: two ATRIA and two VENTRICLES 4 VALVES: two ATRIOVENTRICULAR.
Transport System POINTS TO REMEMBER FROM PREVIOUS CLASS What is the function of the circulatory system? What is being circulated? WHY? What are the major.
Transport System What are the major structures of the circulatory system? TODAY’S FOCUS – HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS.
Chapter 33: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. Chapter 33.1: The Circulatory System.
Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System. The Cardiovascular System A closed system of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood Blood vessels.
Heartoxy artery arterioles capillaries (half blue)gas exchange venuolesdeoxy veins heart Systemic circulation:
BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence.
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Associated Great Vessels Arteries Aorta Leaves left ventricle.
The Cardiac Cycle. Each individual pump of the heart represents one heart beat.
The Heart Circulatory System Ms. Lowrie Advanced Biology 11.
Aorta pulmonary artery left atrium left ventricle septum superior vena cava right atrium inferior vena cava right ventricle tricuspid valve pulmonary valve.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor,
Circulatory System. Figure Transports materials throughout body: Nutrients Metabolic wastes Gases (O 2 & CO 2 ) Hormones [regulate body processes]
Circulatory System Consists of… Blood Vessels Blood Heart.
Have you ever thought about the sound you hear on a stethoscope. What is the “lub dub” sound?
Mammalian Heart. The Heart Consists of TWO pumps, which are separated by a muscular wall called the septum. Right pump receives deoxygenated blood. –Pumps.
The Circulatory System Functions of the Circulatory System: To remove waste products of cell metabolism To circulate necessary materials to all cells (e.g.
Introduction to Circulation AP Biology Unit 6 Invertebrates with Gastrovascular Cavities Don’t have a true circulatory system Material exchange (gases,
Respiration and Circulation Biology 155 A.Russo-Neustadt.
Circulation. Valves ensure blood does not flow back into the atria & ventricles : Right Atrium Tricuspid Valve Right Ventricle Pulmonary Semilunar.
ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.
Circulatory System. Cardiovascular System Includes heart, blood, blood vessels Moves materials to all parts of your body – Movement of materials into.
Chapter 33 Terms. 1.Angina pectoris Pain that indicates a heart attack Caused by a blockage in the coronary artery.
How do simple organisms like jelly fish and flat worms exchange reactants and products of cellular respiration? ◦ Simple animals have a body wall that.
Blood Vessels and the Heart. Blood Vessels Three Types – Arteries: carry blood away from the heart Thick walled, smaller vessels are called arterioles.
The Cardiac Cycle. Learning Outcomes During diastole blood returning to the atria flows into the ventricles. Atrial systole transfers the remainder of.
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 11.1 – Seventh Edition Elaine.
Also known as the circulatory system The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
6.2.1 Draw and label a diagram of the heart showing the four chambers, associated blood vessels, valves and the route of the blood through the heart Some.
1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 12 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The Circulatory System: Heart Physiology. Heart Structure Review.
The Circulatory System Section Functions of the Circulatory System Needed because the body has millions of cells. Transports nutrients, oxygen,
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1 The structures of blood vessels in the human body.
a.k.a cardiovascular system 3 parts: 1. heart 2. blood 3. blood vessels.
DR—Noha Elsayed The Circulatory System.
Circulatory System Blood Lymphatic System. The Heart & Blood flow.
Blood Flow Through the Heart. Right Lung Left Lung.
Lesson 11.1 Heart Anatomy and the Function of the Cardiovascular System Chapter 11: The Cardiovascular System.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The Cardiovascular System Slide 11.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A closed system of the heart and blood.
11.2 Structure and Function of the Heart Hollow organ located between your lungs made mostly of muscle Pumps oxygen-poor blood to your lungs and oxygen-rich.
The Heart. The Pathway of the Blood Through the heart, beginning at the vena cava.
The Body’s Transport System. Cardiovascular system Heart Blood Vessels – Arteries – Veins – Capillaries Blood.
Cardiovascular system FUNCTION Transport nutrients, dissolved gasses, hormones, and metabolic waste COMPOSED OF Heart pumps blood through blood vessels.
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