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Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants

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Presentation on theme: "Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants

2 Alcohol Alcoholic Beverages
all contain ethyl alcohol, but different % Serving of alcohol = ½ oz. Absorbed through capillary walls in small intestine Distributed throughout body Is a psychoactive drug Oxidation occurs in liver by gastric ADH enzyme oz. of alcohol oxidized / hr. (up to .5 oz)

3 Short Term Effects of Alcohol
GABA GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that decreases arousal, aggression, & anxiety Alcohol increases effects of GABA Glutamate An excitatory neurotransmitter – blocked by alcohol Dopamine and Serotonin Increase rewards – positive reinforcement

4 Long Term Effects of Alcohol
Brain / Nervous System Liver Gastrointestinal tract Cardiovascular Endocrine system Immune system Cancer Hypoglycemia Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

5 Effects on Physical Activity
Inc. isometric muscle strength, Inc. VO2 at submax. ex.?? Dec. fine muscle motor control, Dec. hand-eye coordination Lower levels of glycogen

6 Tobacco Nicotine is the addictive substance Administration
Inhalation, Sublingual Absorption – directly into bloodstream Affects brain & CNS Action Causes a release of norepinephrine – stimulant, increase concentration, alertness, decrease appetite Mimics acetylcholine – increase HR, BP, breathing rate Release dopamine – positive reinforcement

7 Adverse Effects Cardiovascular Respiratory Cancer
Most modifiable risk factor for H.D. Due to carbon monoxide buildup Arteriosclerosis Respiratory Damage to cilia Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease – emphysema, bronchitis Cancer Lung cancer Other cancers

8 Smokeless Tobacco Chewing tobacco & snuff
1.8 million users – mostly young males, athletes Nicotine w/o exposure to CO & tar Same physiological effects as smoking Time-released absorption Other health problems Gum disease, damage to enamel “Leukoplakia” Risk of oral, gum, & cheek cancers Smokeless tobacco doesn’t injure others

9 Effects on Physical Activity
Carbon Monoxide Not banned, but NCAA has anti-tobacco campaign

10 Stimulants Administration Action Ingestion, Injection, Inhalation
Causes release of excitatory neurotransmitters – norepinephrine, dopamine, adrenaline Prevents release of inhibitory neurotransmitter - adenosine Physiological Effects: Increase CNS activity (alertness, concentration), HR, BP, metabolism Psychological Effects: Dec. perception of fatigue, Feel stronger, more decisive, Feelings of paranoia, mood swings, irritability

11 Amphetamines Medical uses
Narcolepsy Hyperactivity Appetite suppressant Recreational uses – mood altering effects (“pep”) Athletic uses Increase blood flow to muscles Decrease sense of fatigue Improve reaction time Go beyond normal physiological limit Increase time of productive work

12 Physiological Effects of Caffeine
Increase metabolism, BP, HR Decrease appetite Increased alertness, decrease fatigue Vasoconstriction in the brain Diuresis Increase stomach acid release

13 Ephedrine From Ephedra shrub
Found in many natural health products – Ma Huang & OTC products – asthma, weight loss FDA approval for asthma and decongestant Substitute for MDMA (“ecstasy”)

14 Effects of Ephedrine Physiological effects Side effects
Bronchodilator, increase heart rate, increase blood pressure Side effects Dizziness, irritability, anxiety Adverse effects Stroke, heart attack, seizures, liver failure, insomnia, risk increases if used with caffeine

15 Effects on Physical Activity
Inc. HR, BP Decrease appetite Feelings of dec. fatigue Caffeine - Ergogenic effects? IOC - 12µg/ml NCAA - 15µg/ml Cocaine & Ephedra - Banned by IOC & NCAA

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