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Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants. Alcohol Alcoholic Beverages –all contain ethyl alcohol, but different % –Serving of alcohol = ½ oz. Absorbed.

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Presentation on theme: "Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants. Alcohol Alcoholic Beverages –all contain ethyl alcohol, but different % –Serving of alcohol = ½ oz. Absorbed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effects of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Stimulants

2 Alcohol Alcoholic Beverages –all contain ethyl alcohol, but different % –Serving of alcohol = ½ oz. Absorbed through capillary walls in small intestine –Distributed throughout body –Is a psychoactive drug Oxidation occurs in liver by gastric ADH enzyme – oz. of alcohol oxidized / hr. (up to.5 oz)

3 Short Term Effects of Alcohol GABA –GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that decreases arousal, aggression, & anxiety –Alcohol increases effects of GABA Glutamate –An excitatory neurotransmitter – blocked by alcohol Dopamine and Serotonin –Increase rewards – positive reinforcement

4 Long Term Effects of Alcohol Brain / Nervous System Liver Gastrointestinal tract Cardiovascular Endocrine system Immune system Cancer Hypoglycemia Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

5 Effects on Physical Activity Inc. isometric muscle strength, Inc. VO2 at submax. ex.?? Dec. fine muscle motor control, Dec. hand-eye coordination Lower levels of glycogen

6 Tobacco Nicotine is the addictive substance Administration –Inhalation, Sublingual Absorption – directly into bloodstream –Affects brain & CNS Action –Causes a release of norepinephrine – stimulant, increase concentration, alertness, decrease appetite –Mimics acetylcholine – increase HR, BP, breathing rate –Release dopamine – positive reinforcement

7 Adverse Effects Cardiovascular –Most modifiable risk factor for H.D. –Due to carbon monoxide buildup –Arteriosclerosis Respiratory –Damage to cilia –Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease – emphysema, bronchitis Cancer –Lung cancer –Other cancers

8 Smokeless Tobacco Chewing tobacco & snuff –1.8 million users – mostly young males, athletes Nicotine w/o exposure to CO & tar Same physiological effects as smoking –Time-released absorption Other health problems –Gum disease, damage to enamel – Leukoplakia –Risk of oral, gum, & cheek cancers Smokeless tobacco doesnt injure others

9 Effects on Physical Activity Carbon Monoxide Not banned, but NCAA has anti-tobacco campaign

10 Stimulants Administration –Ingestion, Injection, Inhalation Action –Causes release of excitatory neurotransmitters – norepinephrine, dopamine, adrenaline –Prevents release of inhibitory neurotransmitter - adenosine –Physiological Effects: Increase CNS activity (alertness, concentration), HR, BP, metabolism –Psychological Effects: Dec. perception of fatigue, Feel stronger, more decisive, Feelings of paranoia, mood swings, irritability

11 Amphetamines Medical uses –Narcolepsy –Hyperactivity –Appetite suppressant Recreational uses – mood altering effects (pep) Athletic uses –Increase blood flow to muscles –Decrease sense of fatigue –Improve reaction time –Go beyond normal physiological limit –Increase time of productive work

12 Physiological Effects of Caffeine Increase metabolism, BP, HR Decrease appetite Increased alertness, decrease fatigue Vasoconstriction in the brain Diuresis Increase stomach acid release

13 Ephedrine From Ephedra shrub Found in many natural health products – Ma Huang & OTC products – asthma, weight loss –FDA approval for asthma and decongestant –Substitute for MDMA (ecstasy)

14 Effects of Ephedrine Physiological effects –Bronchodilator, increase heart rate, increase blood pressure Side effects –Dizziness, irritability, anxiety Adverse effects –Stroke, heart attack, seizures, liver failure, insomnia, risk increases if used with caffeine

15 Effects on Physical Activity Inc. HR, BP Decrease appetite Feelings of dec. fatigue Caffeine - Ergogenic effects? –IOC - 12µg/ml –NCAA - 15µg/ml Cocaine & Ephedra - Banned by IOC & NCAA


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