Presentation on theme: "This workshop will focus on…"— Presentation transcript:
1Literature review: How to search, evaluate, synthesize, and present the evidence
2This workshop will focus on… Searching through the literature for relevant sources;Evaluating the findings from your search;Synthesizing these findings; andPresenting the results.
3But WHY do we need to conduct a literature review?
4A literature review can help us to… Address an information needFind out whether the evaluation question has been asked beforeFind out what has been done in similar settingsDetermine what best practices already existDiscover what tools might be useful in our evaluation
8Define the Problem The target population E.g., Age, sex, ethnic group, diagnostic groupThe interventionThe therapy that is of interest to your programThe outcomeThe changes you would like to see in your target population
9Find the Information Academic libraries Online databases Primary source: The original publication of new data, results, and theoriesStice, E., Shaw, H., Burton, E., & Wade, E. (2006, April). Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs: a randomized efficacy trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(2), Retrieved September 18, 2008, from PubMed database.Secondary source: Summarizes or comments on primary sources in the context of the particular idea under studyPratt, B.M. & Woolfenden, S.R. (2002, April). Interventions for preventing eating disorders in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from the Cochrane database.
10Online databases with free content… Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD)Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR)Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP) DatabaseThe International Network of Agencies for Health Technology AssessmentBritish Medical JournalDirectory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)Centre of Excellence evidence databaseNote: Databases are described in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 3 – 5).
11Online databases with limited free content… PubMedYork University Health Research GuideBritish Medical Association (BMA)Note: Databases are described in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 3 – 5).
12Databases available only by subscription… PsycINFO – American Psychological Association (APA)Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED)EMBASENote: Databases are described in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 3 – 5).
13Guidelines available online… Guidelines are a rich source of evaluated evidence, particularly if the question is about treatment or diagnosis of a relatively common medical conditionAvailable for free:UK National Electronic Library for Health Guidelines FinderUS National Guideline Clearing House atGuidelines International Network (GIN) atBMJ Publishing Group’s Clinical EvidenceNote: Guidelines are described in the Supplementary Materials handout (see page 5).
14Search through the Database Use key words from your question as search termsUse restrictions to refine the searchA clearly defined patient group and intervention are the major parameters in most subject searches3. Search by author, journal title etc.Note: Tips for searching databases are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see page 6).
15Approaches to research… QualitativeIn-depth information about people’s experiencesFocus on subjective meaningsTypically small samplesEmphasis on credibility and trustworthinessQuantitativeInformation about how different variables are related to one anotherFocus on objective measurementTypically large samplesEmphasis on causality, reliability, validity
16Types of studies you may find… Systematic reviewsRandomised controlled trialsQuasi-experimental designEvaluation studies with non-experimental designsCase control studiesCohort studiesPopulation surveysQualitative researchNote: There are descriptions of the types of studies you may find in the Supplementary Materials handout (see page 7 – 9).
18Initial questions to consider… Do the title and abstract suggest a fit between the source and your evaluation?Are the articles peer reviewed?Is the study original?Who is the study about? Is it reasonable to expect that the results might apply to your target group?Are the claims made by the study plausible?Note: Questions to consider are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 11 – 12).
19Have the authors addressed all outcomes of interest? What does the study add to what we already know?The authors’ credentials: are the authors associated with the field of study? Do they have relevant clinical experience?Are there any issues related to “researcher bias” that are not addressed?Note: Questions to consider are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 11 – 12).
20The Purpose and MethodAre the research questions clear, specific and answerable?Is the study design appropriate? Do the question, method and analysis of results match up?Is the sample appropriate?If a comparison group was used, was it really comparable to the group receiving the intervention?Did some people 'drop out' of the study, and if so, have the authors accounted for this in their conclusions?Note: Questions to consider are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 11 – 12).
21Results and Conclusions Is the material presented in a way that is transparent and detailed in a way that can be easily examined and evaluated?How large is the effect of the intervention, if there is one?How precise is the estimate of the effect? How likely is it that the result was due to chance?Have the authors clearly shown how they came to their findings?Does the author explain study limitations?Do the conclusions match the findings? Are the conclusions supported by the analysis?Note: Questions to consider are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see pages 11 – 12).
23Initial questions to consider… What are the most relevant sources?What are some common elements across sources?What is unique about each source?What are the key ideas/concepts being conveyed?Why would this be important?What are the limitations/gaps in the literature? (Note: this is particularly important, because it speaks to your contribution to the literature – i.e., your work may help fill this gap)Note: Tips for synthesizing findings are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see page 13).
24Develop a Summary Table Title and Publication InformationType of Source and ApproachOverall GoalMain Ideas and ConclusionLimitationsNote: A sample of this summary table is included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see page 10).
26Planning the Literature Review What are the goals of the review?Who is the audience?What are your key messages?How should the review be organized?
27Tips for Writing the Literature Review Use the right word in the right placeAvoid awkward, rambling and run-on sentencesAvoid sentence fragmentsUse clear, plain languageAlways use examples or statements to substantiate your pointFeel free to use an active voiceNote: Tips for writing the literature review are included in the Supplementary Materials handout (see page 13).