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The Canadian Forces and Peace Support Operations Colonel Paul Morneault on behalf of Col Mike Hanrahan Director of Peacekeeping Policy Director of Peacekeeping.

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Presentation on theme: "The Canadian Forces and Peace Support Operations Colonel Paul Morneault on behalf of Col Mike Hanrahan Director of Peacekeeping Policy Director of Peacekeeping."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Canadian Forces and Peace Support Operations Colonel Paul Morneault on behalf of Col Mike Hanrahan Director of Peacekeeping Policy Director of Peacekeeping Policy Department of National Defence March, 2007

2 Legacy of the 1990s Somalia, Rwanda, and Srebrenica (Bosnia) Brahimi Panel Report Need for robust, cohesive units Enhanced UNNY thru Situation Centre, Mission Planning and Force Generation Services, Best Practices Unit Greater roles of civilian experts and gender considerations Strategic Deployment Stocks and pre-commitment authority

3 Armed Non-State Actors Fragile States Transnational actors Global Threats Information Security Peace Support Operations

4 A Growth Industry More missions and more intra-state conflict –1991 to 1996: 24 new PSO missions established –Preceding 43 years total: 18 missions –2006: 19 UN + 18 non-UN Military & Observer missions UN Peacekeepers: –12,500 in 1995; - 77,000 in 2006 All peacekeepers UN, other (excl Iraq): –120, UN troop/police contributors today –Top 10 TCCs provide 78% of UN requirements

5 Peace Operations = Complexity Mandates with over 90 tasks Diversity in skills required to do human rights, DDR, rule of law, etc. Mission integration Expensive due to size of missions More troop contributors demand standards National caveats decrease effectiveness

6 New Peacekeeping Partners NATO (Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan) OSCE (Balkans, Caucasus) EU (Bosnia, DRC Ituri and elections) ECOWAS (Liberia, Cote dIvoire) AU (Burundi, Darfur) Coalitions of the Willing: –Australian (INTERFET) –UK (Sierra Leone) –France (Cote dIvoire) –US (Liberia, Haiti)

7 Foreign Policy Context Multilateral rather than unilateral Peacekeeping is fundamental to the principle of collective security All of government

8 Range of Tools Development aid Confidence building measures Good governance, assistance Control / Reform of the security forces Preventive diplomacy Sanctions, Control of weapons flows, Embargoes Police contributions Military personnel, equipment, training

9 Defence Policy The Canadian Defence Policy Key Tenets: World is highly unstable and unpredictable Canadian Forces mandate: (a) protect Canadians; (b) defend North America with US; and (c) contribute to international peace and security Maintenance of multi-purpose, combat- capable maritime, land and air forces Terrorism, fragile/failing states key challenges All of government interaction Increasing military professionalism world-wide


11 Determinants CF Campaign Plan ANDS Canada Strategy RC (S) Campaign Plan NATO OPLANs Whole-of- Govt Assessment Evaluation Measures of Effectiveness Campaign Assessment Framework Afghanistan Compact Progress Reporting Campaign Adjustment

12 Strategic Lines of Operations 3D Approach – One Equal Team To strengthen and enhance the architecture of governance, in cooperation with Canadian governmental departments as well as international organizations. To facilitate the delivery of programs and projects in support of the economic recovery and rehabilitation of Afghanistan. Focusing on supporting Canadian governmental organizations, and NGOs whose efforts meet our national objectives. To conduct full spectrum operations in support of Afghan National Security Forces in order to create an environment which is secure and conducive to the improvement of Afghan life. GOVERNANCE DEVELOPMENT SECURITY

13 Canadian Forces Campaign Plan CDS INTENT The CF commitment to Afghanistan is all about helping Afghans: help them move towards self-sufficiency in security, stabilize their country, develop their government and build a better future for their children. Our commitment, as part of a wider Government of Canada and International Community commitments, will aim to achieve effects at three levels: at the national level, by providing mentoring and advisory capabilities; at the regional level, by taking the lead of the multinational brigade; and provincially in Kandahar, by providing a robust battle group and a capable Provincial Reconstruction Team.

14 TAJIKISTANTAJIKISTAN INDIAINDIA IRANIRAN TURKMENISTANTURKMENISTAN JALALABAD HERAT PAKISTANPAKISTAN ISLAMABAD BAGRAM AFLD MAZAR-E SHARIF KHOWST AFGHANISTANAFGHANISTAN KABUL KANDAHAR Strategic Advisory Team CA Afghan National Training Centre (ANTC) ISAF & CSTC-A Staff Officers NSE Det (Kabul) Joint Task Force Afghanistan (JTF-AFG) 1 RCR BG Provincial Reconstruction Team Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team Theatre Support Element (TSE)

15 The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) A civil-military organisation, task organised to the province. The Canadian PRT will conduct interdepartmental operations to assist the Government of Afghanistan in extending its authority in order to facilitate the development of a stable, secure environment in the province of Kandahar. Personnel from MoD, MFA & Development, Police, Corrections (soon) agencies

16 Afghanistan Today Current Perspective –Whole of Government Approach (3D) –Coalition Operations with Canada in the Lead –All about support to GoA and the Afghan People Challenges in Afghanistan –Classic Counter-Insurgency Op Insurgents adapt Takes time Cant do it alone –Partnering Canadian Forces –Best Equipped in Afghanistan –Well Trained –Well Led

17 Trends MechanismGovernmentSecurity United Nations-Legitimacy -Cost sharing -Reimbursement - Lack of robustness -Slow deployment Alliances-Multinational but restricted charters -Long-term commitment -Cost-sharing, high over time -Rapid Response -Interoperability -Crisis planning -Trusted partners Coalitions-Immediate response -Short duration -Modest total cost -Ad hoc -Strong lead nation -Trusted partners -Not sustainable over time Capacity Building -Total control over activity -Controllable cost over time -Small investment of specialists

18 Conclusions New security environment = More complex PSOs Militaries & peace operations also changing All of Government/Integrated approaches required for success Full range of mechanisms necessary: choose the right mechanism for the specific task Canada remains a significant peace and security contributor

19 Questions?

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