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A comprehensive framework to teach research in Nursing Dr Susan Wright Department of Nursing.

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1 A comprehensive framework to teach research in Nursing Dr Susan Wright Department of Nursing

2 Introduction Teaching research is challenging –Teacher –Student: resistant, unwilling Definition of research –Umbrella term –Inquiring mind –Sees patterns –Asks why

3 Why engage in research? Gather knowledge about their subject Viability of a profession is dependent upon ongoing generation and dissemination of knowledge Nursing is an art and science Credibility of nursing –Value –Quality of service –Requires a sound knowledge base

4 In nursing, knowledge is often based on –Tradition –Authority –Trial and error –Personal experience Little research is done outside the requirements of academia Clinical studies few and far between Underlying problem: education

5 Attitude: own experience B Tech Nursing students Core component Protocol 2003 – topic: knowledge and attitude of registered nurses regarding research In 9 units – 16 Serious lack of research knowledge Why?

6 South African Nursing Council: Nursing science is a human clinical health science that constitutes the body of knowledge for the practice of persons, registered or enrolled under the Nursing Act as nurses or midwifes. Within the parameters of nursing philosophy and ethics it is concerned with the development of knowledge (my accentuation) for the nursing diagnosis, treatment and personalised health care of persons exposed to, suffering, or recovering from physical or mental ill-health.

7 Focus Few aspects of the definition –clinical health, nursing diagnosis, treatment, health care and individuals, groups and communities. The focus is on people with a health-related problem that they can assist and care for in some way, be it preventative, promotive, curative or rehabilitative

8 Thinking is demarcated along specific interventions Masters of discipline Knowledgeable and comfortable in role of a registered nurse Safe practitioners of the art and science of nursing

9 But? Definition of Nursing: development of knowledge Registered nurses are charged with not only using existing knowledge, but also to develop new knowledge Method for doing so: research No specific category

10 Research: taught how? Conceptual framework: –theoretical knowledge of research –scientific writing –psychological support –experiential learning

11 Background B Tech Nursing programme –Registered nurses –Research is a core programme –Composition variable Work Age Experience –Common attributes: Registered nurses Exposure to a taught research programme No research engagement after registration Willingness: 7,5 Ability: 3

12 Experiential learning Scientific writing skillsTheoretical knowledge Research Psychological support

13 Conceptual framework Theoretical knowledge –How much? –Use of textbooks –Open book discipline –Apply principles in: drafting an accountable proposal implementing the research writing a scientific report Application and synthesis is the cognitive levels required of the student, not memorising Core lecture: 11 decision model

14 11-Decision model Research components Research problem Purpose and aims Theoretical basis of study Strategy Context Research design Population Data gathering Data analysis Reliability and validity / trustworthiness Concepts

15 11 Decision model Coherence of choices in terms of research problem Start writing proposal only after all 11 decisions have been approved Writing becomes less frustrating Bridge to writing: –Concepts = background –11 decision = basis of proposal What to write is now known

16 Scientific writing Writing is part of nursing, but style of writing is of a direct nature, directly stating an observed problem or action taken Sentences short and often incomplete Learning activity: 300 words English second language Scientific writing is a skill

17 Scientific writing Instruction in scientific writing – pre-planned curriculum Specific objectives Assessment criteria Develop learning activities to assist students –Writing assignments –Macro and micro organisation of a scientific document –Citation and references Structured approach How to write is now known

18 Psychological support Most crucial of the four pillars Address feelings of insecurity to change negative attitude Acknowledge the negative feelings Emphasise the importance of the research role of nurses, because students have never internalised this role Have an open door policy Be a role role model; be a researcher


20 Experiential learning Without doing research and becoming experienced to some extent before they complete the module, students will still not overcome their negativity regarding research Accomplish specific outcomes

21 Specific outcomes Enhancement of scientific writing assignments Development of a data gathering instrument Analysing quantitative and qualitative data Writing letters of consent Writing the group proposal that is implemented, the data analysed and a scientific report written. Writing of an abstract Drafting a proposal of the students own choice. Presenting the proposal and evaluating co- students proposals

22 Role of facilitator Knowledgeable researcher Published author Psychological supporter Research role model

23 Conclusion The four pillars of the conceptual framework are of equal importance There are no research role models in the clinical setting Registered nurses furthering their careers are most prone to uncertainty Acknowledge feelings of confusion and incompetence With good planning, even if the facilitator is still inexperienced, success in teaching research could be achieved

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