Presentation on theme: "America’s Growing Response to Global Warming"— Presentation transcript:
1America’s Growing Response to Global Warming A Changing ClimateAmerica’s Growing Response to Global WarmingPeter RimbosSouth King County Group
2The Sierra Club Explore, Enjoy and Protect the Planet Founded in 1892, the Sierra Club is America’s Oldest Grassroots Environmental Organization.The Cascade Chapter covers the state of Washington.The South King County Group covers King County south of I-90.
4Greenhouse GasesThe Vast Majority of Greenhouses Gases Come From Burning Fossil Fuels like Oil, Coal, and Natural Gas
5Temperature Rises as Greenhouse Gases Increase There is a clear correlation between the level of atmospheric CO2 and temperature.Current level of CO2 is outside bounds of natural variability and rate of change is unprecedented.The Ten Hottest Years on Record Have All Occurred Since 1990.
6Climate Change Timeline 60 Million Yr AgoAtmospheric CO2 levels jump to ~8 to 10 times present-day levels. Large-scale burial of the surplus carbon through swamps; Coal forms.11,500 Yr AgoThe last Ice Age ends.1750Industrial Revolution begins &we start to burn stored fossil fuels.1827Fourier suggests existence of an atmospheric effect keeping Earth warmer than it would otherwise be; uses greenhouse analogy.1863Tyndall publishes paper describing how water vapor can be a greenhouse gas.1890sArrhenius and Chamberlain independently realize burning of fossil fuels could lead to global warming, but neither suspect it has started.1890s to 1940Average surface air temperatures increase by about 0.25 °C (0.45 °F). Some scientists see American Dust Bowl as a sign of the greenhouse effect at work.1957Revelle warns we’re conducting a "large-scale geophysical experiment" on the planet by releasing greenhouse gases. Keeling sets up first continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO2 levels and finds regular year-on-year rise.
7Climate Change Timeline (2) 1970sSeries of studies by US DOE increases concerns about future global warming.1979First World Climate Conference calls on governments "to foresee and prevent potential man-made changes in climate“.1985First major international conference warns that greenhouse gases will "in the first half of the next century, cause a rise of global mean temperature which is greater than any in man's history".1988UN sets up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to analyze and report on scientific findings.1990The first report of the IPCC finds that the planet has warmed by 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) in the past century. IPCC warns that only strong measures to halt rising greenhouse gas emissions will prevent serious global warming1992Climate Change Convention, signed by 154 nations, agrees to prevent "dangerous" warming from greenhouse gases. Sets initial target of reducing emissions from industrialized countries to 1990 levels by the year 2000.1997Kyoto Protocol agrees legally binding emissions cuts for industrialized nations, averaging 5.4 %, to be met by 2010.2005Kyoto treaty goes into effect, signed by major industrial nations except US and Australia.
8Global Warming & Leadership Any Serious Effort in the United States to Reduce Global Warming Emissions Must Involve Reductions in Oil ConsumptionAs the world’s largest GHG emitter, US leadership could prod China and India to action.
9The United States is the World’s Largest Polluter Top 10 Global Warming Polluters200,000400,000600,000800,0001,000,0001,200,0001,400,0001,600,0001,800,000United StatesChina (mainland)RussiaJapanIndiaGermanyUnited KingdomCanadaItalyNorth Koreathousand metric tons of carbon
10U.S. Global Warming Emissions US Sources of greenhouse gas emissions in 2001.Source: US Dept. of Transportation 2004
11Smart Energy Solutions to Global Warming Increasing Fuel EconomyInvesting in Renewable EnergyBoosting Energy Efficiency
12Increasing Fuel Economy Using Existing Technology, Higher Fuel Economy Standards Would:Save 4 Million Barrels of Oil Per Day by 2020.Reduce U.S. Global Warming Emissions by over 850 million tons of CO2 by 2020.Save Consumers Over $16 billion dollars annually by 2020.
13Investing in Clean Energy Investing in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Would:Avoid the Need for Over 1100 New and Existing Coal and Natural Gas Fired Power PlantsReduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2/3rds from Business as Usual by 2020.Save Consumers $440 billion by 2020
14Why is the U.S. Starting to Address Global Warming? Undeniable Scientific ConsensusGlobal Warming Impacts Are Becoming More Noticeable and Wider SpreadRising Energy Prices Are Hurting the American EconomyNational Security and Energy Issues are Tied Together
15Scientific Consensus on Global Warming "Warming of the climate system is unequivocal,as is now evident from observations ofincreases in global average air and ocean temperatures,widespread melting of snow and ice,and rising global mean sea level""...very high confidence thatthe globally averaged net effect of human activitiessince 1750 has been one of warming...”--U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. February 2007
16Approved by the AAAS Board of Directors---9 December 2006 American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Climate ChangeApproved by the AAAS Board of Directors---9 December 2006“The scientific evidence is clear: global climate change caused by human activities is occurring now, and it is a growing threat to society.”“Delaying action to address climate change will increase the environmental and societal consequences as well as the costs.”“It is time to muster the political will for concerted action. Stronger leadership at all levels is needed. The time is now. We must rise to the challenge. We owe this to future generations.”
17Global Warming Impacts HealthWeather-related mortalityInfectious diseasesAir-quality respiratory illnessesAgricultureCrop yieldsIrrigation demandsClimate ChangesForestsChange in forest compositionShift geographic range of forestsForest health and productivityTemperaturePrecipitationWater ResourcesChanges in water supplyWater qualityIncreased competition for waterClimate Change ImpactsOver the past few decades, Scientists have observed changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and sea-level rise and are projecting wide-ranging and some potentially devastating impacts on the natural environment and human societies.Our health, agriculture, forests, water resources, coastal areas, and species and natural areas are all vulnerable to the projected climate changes. For a small degree of warming, there is a mix of benefits and harms, however; the harms increase dramatically for the higher projected temperature increases.The following series of slides demonstrate some of the changes that have already begun to occur.Sea Level RiseCoastal AreasErosion of beachesInundation of coastal landsCosts to protect coastal communitiesSpecies and Natural AreasShift in ecological zonesLoss of habitat and speciesSource: EPA
18Since 1979, 20% of the Polar Ice Cap Has Melted Away Reduction of Polar Ice Cap -- Striking Examples of Climate ChangeIn recent years global temperatures began rising at an unprecedented rate and, especially at the poles, things seemed to be melting in a way that they never had before. This dramatic illustration taken from NASA satellite images shows just how substantial the melting from global warming has been. Since 1979, 20% of the polar icecap has melted away.
19New Voices Calling for Action on Global Warming Corporate CEOsReligious LeadersPower CompaniesInsurance FirmsAuto Manufacturers;Wall Street Financial Firms
2092% of Americans Say that They Are Worried About Dependence on Foreign Oil - Yale University Polling: June 9, 2005
21State and Local Governments are Taking Action In the Absence of Federal Action on Global Warming, State and Local Governments are Taking Action on Global Warming:Cool CitiesClean CarsClean Energy
23Clean Cars Across the US Eleven States Nationwide Follow California StandardsCA – WA – OR – ME – VT – MA - CT – RI – NY – NJ – PAAccounting for 34% of All New Vehicles Sold in the U.S.
2420 States Have Adopted Renewable Energy Standards Clean Energy Across the US20 States Have Adopted Renewable Energy Standards
25The Road AheadCongress is Beginning to Respond. Rep. Waxman Introduced Legislation that Caps Emissions in 2010 Before Requiring Annual Reductions. By 2050, Emissions Will Be 80% Lower Than In 1990.The new Congress has begun to seriously address global warming.The major Presidential candidates of both parties for 2008 have gone on record that the US must seriously address global warming.