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Climate. History of Energy Use Energy for Sustainability (2008)

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Presentation on theme: "Climate. History of Energy Use Energy for Sustainability (2008)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate

2 History of Energy Use Energy for Sustainability (2008)

3 Exponential growth in population, economy, and energy How can we sustain them, modify them, and live with the consequences? between-energy-supply-population-and-the-economy/

4 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Global Energy Trends Demand Growth: >2% per year High dependence on fossil fuels Inequitable distribution of energy use Huge appetite in developing world

5 Energy for Sustainability (2008) between-energy-supply-population-and-the-economy/

6 Emissions Indicators, 2010 (EIA) Country Annual CO2 emissions (in thousands of metric tons) GDP (current, in billions of US dollars) GDP per Emissions (in US dollars per ton) GDP (PPP, in billions of current international dollars) PPP GDP per Emissions (in international dollars per ton) China[4]China[4]6,103,4932,657.844356,122.241,003 United States 5,752,28913,178.352,29113,178.352,291 European Union 3,908,66214,510.823,71213,641.223,490 Russia 1,564,669989.436321,887.611,206 India 1,510,351874.775792,672.661,770 Japan 1,293,4094,363.633,3744,079.143,154 Germany 805,0902,914.993,6212,671.453,318 United Kingdom 568,5202,435.704,2842,048.993,604 Canada 544,6801,278.972,3481,203.742,210 South Korea 475,248952.032,0031,190.702,505 Italy 474,1481,865.113,9341,720.643,629 Iran 466,976222.13476693.321,485 Mexico 436,150952.342,1841,408.813,230 South Africa 414,649257.89622433.511,045 France[1]France[1]383,1482,271.285,9281,974.395,153 Saudi Arabia 381,564356.63935522.121,368 Australia 372,013755.212,030713.961,919 Brazil 352,5241,089.303,0901,700.574,824 PPP: Purchasing Power Parity

7 Which country emits the most CO 2 to produce goods (GDP)? 1.US 2.Russia 3.India 4.China Countdown 20

8 Energy per Capita Energy for Sustainability (2008) The World Bank : Kilograms of oil equivalent (2011) 未知との遭遇 未知との遭遇

9 Energy Intensity GDP-by-region.html

10 U.S. Energy Use by Sector


12 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Energy for Sustainability Sustainability –Patterns of economic, environmental, and social progress that meet the needs of the present day without reducing the capacity to meet future needs. Sustainable energy –Patterns of energy production and use that can support society’s present and future needs with least life-cycle economic, environmental, and social costs.

13 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Climate Change Global Climate Change Trends –Rising global emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases –Rising global concentration of CO2 –Rising global mean temperature –Retreating polar ice caps due to higher temperatures

14 source_center/23

15 During what season does the vegetation on the earth release the most carbon dioxide into the atmosphere? Energy for Sustainability (2008) 1.Spring-Summer 2.Fall-Winter Countdown 20

16 Energy for Sustainability (2008) /gmd/ccgg/trends/

17 Response to Global Warming Mitigating climate change by reducing GHG emissions through technology, planning, and policy Policy directions –Meetings of the UNFCCC Kyoto protocol (Cancun Agreement)Cancun Agreement –CCAC: Climate and Clean Air CoalitionCCAC: Climate and Clean Air Coalition – Clean Energy Ministerial Clean Energy Ministerial –European Union and other countries –U.S. states and cities Adapting to climate change by –Lessening the impacts using technology and planning –Anticipating effects and modifying practices so that we can leave with those effects in the future

18 “The Tragedy of the Commons” If only one person limits overgrazing of sheep, no one will benefit and that one person is harmed—Garrett Hardin 1968, Ecology Professor UC Santa Barbara Everyone must work together Energy for Sustainability (2008)

19 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Energy conversion efficiency – is the effectiveness of converting one form of input energy to another more useful form. If we can convert more useful energy out of a unit energy we are converting energy more efficiently Energy functional efficiency – is the useful performance we can get out of the energy we consume. Energy conservation – is defined as behavioral changes made by individuals or communities to save energy by cutting back on the functions energy provides.

20 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Energy Intensity –Indicates how much a national economy is dependent on energy per unit of economic output or gross domestic product (GPD) –If energy efficiency is low therefore efficiency is high in that economy

21 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Energy Consumption

22 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Energy Efficiency

23 Energy for Sustainability (2008) Main Points Oil is a nonrenewable resource and production continues to increase to meet growing demand. Scientific consensus that the global climate change forced by human-induced greenhouse gas emissions is occurring Global consumption of energy continues to increase at 2% per year Fossil fuels with their CO 2 emissions and other environmental effects still provide more than 85% of our energy Renewable energy contributes only to a small share of U.S. and global commercial energy\Energy efficiency improvements have helped reduce energy intensity of the economy

24 Energy Units MAGES/LEC4/table1.gif Exojoule: 10 18 joules

25 Units Conversion 1 barrel bbl = 42 gallons

26 Common Acronyms CCS: Carbon Capture and Sequestration CO 2 CO 2e DOE DSM: Demand Side Management E i EIA: Energy Information Administration IEA: International Energy Agency IPCC RPS: Renewable Portfolio Standard TPES: Total Primary Energy Supply UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Energy for Sustainability (2008)

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