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2.008 -Spring 20041 2.008 Manufacturing Systems. 2.008 -Spring 20042 Outline 1.Manufacturing Systems 2.Types of Plant Layouts 3. Production Rates 4. Design.

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Presentation on theme: "2.008 -Spring 20041 2.008 Manufacturing Systems. 2.008 -Spring 20042 Outline 1.Manufacturing Systems 2.Types of Plant Layouts 3. Production Rates 4. Design."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spring Manufacturing Systems

2 Spring Outline 1.Manufacturing Systems 2.Types of Plant Layouts 3. Production Rates 4. Design and Operations

3 Spring Manufacture Market Research Conceptual Design Design for Manufacture Unit Manufacturing Processes Assembly and Joining Factory, Systems & Enterprise

4 Spring What is mfg systems?

5 Spring Time spectrum of Typical Activities in a Manufacturing Organization SecondsPeriodActivity 10 8 Decade Plant design, Machine Selection, 10 7 YearSystem Simulation Process design: CAD 10 6 MonthCatalogs Select manufacturing methods Week 10 5 Day Factory Operation 10 4 Ship-Receive HourTransport Inventory MinutePart handling 10 1 Load/Unload Assembly 1Second.1Machine control CNC-DNC.01Adaptive control Intelligent machines.001MillisecondProcess control

6 Spring How Man, Machine, and Material Spend Time in the Factory People Materials Machines Value- added Waste Waste: transportation, storage, inspect on and rework "Waste": unnecessary movement of machine, setup time, machine breakdown, unproductive maintenance, producing defective products, producing products when not needed, etc. "Waste": waiting for materials, watching machine running, producing defects, looking for tools, fixing machine breakdowns, producing unnecessary items, etc

7 Spring Disruptions/Variation (Random Events) Machine failure Set-up change Operator absence Starvation/Blockage Demand change

8 Spring Types of Plant Layout Job Shop Project Shop Flow Line Transfer Line Cellular System

9 Spring Job Shop Machines/Resources are grouped according to the process they perform Raw Material Ready part AA AA DD DD DD CC CC C C

10 Spring Project Shop Machines/Resources are brought to and removed from stationary part as required A A C B B D D D Raw material/ Ready part

11 Spring Flow Line and Transfer Line Machines/Resources are grouped in lines according to the processes sequence of part(s) A A Raw Material Ready part B B C D DF F F G

12 Spring Cellular System Machines/Resources are grouped according to the processes required for part families Raw Material Ready part B B C E E A D D D F F G

13 Spring Production Quantity and Plant Layout Project Shop Job Shop Cellular System Flow Line ,00010,000100,000 Quantity

14 Spring Production Rates Case I: –One machine –Everything works M

15 Spring Production Rates (contd) Case II: –One machine –Machine breaks down (disruption) –Everything else works M

16 Spring Production Rates (contd) Case III: –Many machines –No machine breaks down –No buffers M1M1 M2M2 MiMi MkMk

17 Spring Production Rates (contd) Case IV: –Many machines (same operation time) –No machine breaks down –No buffers M1M1 M2M2 MiMi MkMk

18 Spring Production Rates (contd) Case V: –Many machines (same operation time) –Machine breaks down –No buffers M1M1 M2M2 MiMi MkMk

19 Spring Production Rates (contd) Case VI: –Many machines and buffers in between –Machine breaks down M1M1 M2M2 MiMi MkMk B1B1 B2B2 B k-1 M k-1

20 Spring Production Rates (contd) Production rate increases if: –Increase the rate of the slowest machine –Reduce the disruptions –Introduce buffers –Introduce in-process control

21 Spring Disruptions (Random Events) Machine failure Set-up change Operator absence Starvation/Blockage

22 Spring Waiting Underutilization Idleness Inventory

23 Spring Inventory/Work-in-Process (WIP) It costs money It gets damaged It becomes obsolete It shrinks It increases lead time

24 Spring Cycle Time and Lead Time Order Supply Order Supply PlantSupplierCustomer

25 Spring Cycle Time The time a part spends in the system Littles Law: L = λw L: average inventory λ: average production rate w: average cycle time

26 Spring Cycle Time (contd) Example: Operation time = 1, One-piece operation Production rate = 1 Cycle time = 5 Inventory = 5 M1M1 M2M2 M3M3 M5M5 M4M4

27 Spring Cycle Time Batch Production 1. Operation time: 3 minutes Batch (Lot) size: 1000 Cycle time = 1,000*3 + 1,000*3 + 1,000*3 = 9,000min Op1Op2Op3

28 Spring Cycle Time One-Piece Production 2. Operation time = 3 minutes Cycle time = 1,000*3 + 2*3 = 3,006 minutes Op1Op2Op3

29 Spring Cycle Time and Lead Time Order Supply Order Supply PlantSupplierCustomer

30 Spring Systems Design and Operation Cycle time < Lead time Lumpiness Information contents

31 Spring Lumpy Demand D P5 5 D P D P10 10 D P25 25 D P D P50 50 D Wrench AWrench B Wrench CWrench D Forging XForging Y Steel Z

32 Spring Typical Design Guidelines Leveling Balancing Single-piece flow Low materials handling Low setup time Smaller lot size Low WIP Faster feedback

33 Spring Plant Operations Push (MRP, ERP, etc.) vs. Pull (JIT) Batch vs. One-piece


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