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Footnotes and Endnotes: The Rhetoric of Documentation.

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Presentation on theme: "Footnotes and Endnotes: The Rhetoric of Documentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Footnotes and Endnotes: The Rhetoric of Documentation

2 Think of documentation as the foundation upon which scholarship is built. Use the documentation as a vehicle to further the conversation between you, the text, and the author of the text.

3 Types of documentation APA: psychology, education, and other social sciences. MLA: literature, arts, and humanities. AMA: medicine, health, and biological sciences. Turabian: designed for college students to use with all subjects. Chicago: used with all subjects in the "real world" by books, magazines, newspapers, and other non-scholarly publications.

4 Information notes in MLA Researchers who use the MLA system of parenthetical documentation may also use footnotes or endnotes for one of two purposes: provide additional material that might interrupt the flow of the paper yet is important enough to include refer to several sources or to provide comments on sources

5 Footnotes and Endnotes Footnotes appear at the foot of the page; endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the paper, just before the list of works cited. For either style, the notes are numbered consecutively throughout the paper. The text of the paper contains a raised arabic numeral that corresponds to the number of the note. Ex: AP Language is the best class ever. 1

6 What does this look like? TEXT Local governments are more likely than state governments to pass legislation against using a cell phone while driving.¹ ENDNOTE ¹For a discussion of local laws banning cell phone use, see Sundeen 8.

7 Another example.. Text- On a printing press called The Columbian each pillar was a serpent and atop the machine perched an eagle with extended wings, grasping in its talons Joves thunderbolts. An olive branch of peace, and a cornucopia of plenty, and bronzed and gilt.¹ Footnote- ¹John F. Kasson, Civilizing the Machine (New York; Grossman Publishers, The Viking Press, 1976), Chapter 4, The Aesthetics of Machinery, pp

8 Documentation in humanities Research in the humanities generally involves interpreting of a text or a work of art within a historical and cultural context, making connections, exploring meaning, uncovering contradictions. Scholars in the humanities typically use library resources in at least three ways

9 Why use documentation 1. to obtain primary sources to be interpreted or analyzed 2. to find secondary sources to put primary sources in a critical context 3. to seek answers to specific questions that arise during research

10 Why study documentation Leads to understanding the nature of the academic discourse. To clarify that substance, as well as style, is essential in the interpretation To understand that invention must coexist in near equal measure with well conducted and thorough research in nonfiction.

11 Parts of a Citation Stan Hawkins, Ill Never be an Angel: Stories of Deception on Madonnas Music, Critical Musicology Journal May 1998, 16 August Author:Hawkins, Stan Title:Ill Never be an Angel: Stories of Deception on Madonnas Music Title of Journal: Critical Musicology Journal Date of Journal: May 1998 Date Accessed:August Website:.

12 Footnote/ Endnote Format First Note: ¹ Stan Hawkins, Ill Never be an Angel: Stories of Deception on Madonnas Music, Critical Musicology Journal May 1998, 16 August Subsequent Notes: ² Hawkins.

13 How will AP know that you know? Multiple choice questions section of the test will have 3-8 questions on the rhetoric of documentation.

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