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Mr. White’s History Class Writing a Research Paper – Part 4: Introduction, Conclusion, and Body Paragraphs.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. White’s History Class Writing a Research Paper – Part 4: Introduction, Conclusion, and Body Paragraphs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. White’s History Class Writing a Research Paper – Part 4: Introduction, Conclusion, and Body Paragraphs

2 Objectives What do we want to know how to do? Write an introduction Write a conclusion Write body paragraphs

3 Paragraphs – What are they? To understand how to write a paragraph, we must first understand what a paragraph’s purpose is. A paragraph is a collection of related sentences that deals with a single topic (Purdue OWL). A paragraph is not determined by length.

4 What makes a paragraph? A paragraph has the following qualities: Unity – stick to one topic Coherence – the paragraph is understandable to the reader A topic sentence – this tells the reader what the paragraph will talk about Adequate development (what determines if a paragraph is “long” enough): The topic should be discussed fully and adequately Two or three sentences is probably not enough – it probably doesn’t develop the idea fully and adaquately Taken from Purdue Online Writing Lab

5 Section 1: Introductions What the purpose of an introduction is, how to write it.

6 Introductions - Purpose The purpose of an introduction is to give to the reader: Your main thesis question, topic, area of comparison, etc. Your thesis statement – a statement describing what you’ve found through your research A general overview of how you will take the reader to your eventual conclusion Briefly explain what kinds of smaller questions you will ask Briefly explain what types of information you will provide to support your opinion It does not need to be limited to a paragraph – it can be several paragraphs, or even a whole chapter (in the case of a book)

7 How to write an introduction Start with a “hook” – an interesting statement or question that grabs the reader’s interest (it doesn’t have to be too fancy) and is related to your topic Introduce your thesis question and thesis statement by stating them directly Explain to the reader how you will use your research to support your thesis statement

8 Section 2: Conclusions What the purpose of a conclusion is, how to write it.

9 Conclusion - Purpose The purpose of a conclusion is: To restate your thesis To recap and retrace for the reader how you went about proving it, and the evidence you presented To bring a logical conclusion to your paper As with an introduction, a conclusion is not limited to a paragraph – it can be several paragraphs or even a chapter

10 How to Write a Conclusion Restate your original question and thesis to the reader. Briefly retrace and summarize the major arguments and evidence you presented to prove your main point Explain how those points support your main idea.

11 Section 3: Body Paragraphs What the purpose of a body paragraph is, how to write one.

12 Body Paragraph - Purpose The purpose of a body paragraph is to introduce pieces of information, explain them, and use them to support your main idea. A body paragraph will use a piece of information that you’ve gathered, explain it further, give your own interpretation, and tie it into the main idea Body paragraphs should have a logic to their organization Chronological – sequence of events Topical – different topics Compare and contrast

13 How to Write a Body Paragraph It’s best to know beforehand how you want to organize your paper – chronologically, topically, compare and contrast, etc. Use your notecards to organize your evidence and support based on your paper organization Once you’ve organized your notecards, use one or more pieces of evidence in each to create your body paragraphs In the body paragraphs: Present the evidence Evaluate the evidence (how useful/valuable it is) Explain how the evidence supports your main point Logically conclude the paragraph – make sure you complete the idea

14 In-text Citations When you use evidence from other sources for your paper, you must use in-text citations. There are three basic types of in-text citations Paraphrasing – taking information and rephrasing it Short quotation – shorter than 40 words Long quotation – longer than 40 words For an in-text citation, you must have three things: The name of the author (if available) The year of publication (if available) The page number (if available)

15 Citing When paraphrasing, place the in-text citation at the end of the evidence you’re citing, in parentheses, in the following format: (White, 2004, p.4) It is suggested that you also include the page number, but it is not required Exceptions If there is no author available, put the title from your references list - (The Mongol Military, 2004) If there is no publication date, simply list all other information - (The Mongol Military, p.4) If there is no pagination, it is not necessary to include it – (White, 2004)

16 Assignment Make sure: Your introduction, conclusion, and body paragraph all meet the conditions above Your introduction and conclusion are closely related, and outline where your paper will go

17 Sources “Paragraphs and Paragraphing.” Purdue Online Writing Lab. Purdue University. Web. 30 Nov


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