Presentation on theme: "Designing E-Rural Development Services - emerging trends and approaches S. Janakiram Champion, ICT for Rural Development, E-development and Sustainable."— Presentation transcript:
Designing E-Rural Development Services - emerging trends and approaches S. Janakiram Champion, ICT for Rural Development, E-development and Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Knowledge and Institutions Thematic Groups World Bank Session organized by E-development services thematic group in collaboration with ITSLC Quickstart, ISGIF, and SASKI thematic group, World Bank 23 March 2005 The views and opinions expressed in this presentation are the authors own and should not be attributed to the World Bank, its management, its Board of Directors or the countries they represent.
Overview What is E-Rural Development? What are the emerging trends in E-Rural Development? What are the approaches in E-rural development? – a practical framework How to design E-Rural Development Services? – implementation steps What has worked and what has not worked – some examples What we hope to see in the years ahead? – some suggestions
Take away messages - to design and implement e-rural development services to - reach MDGs and obtain results on the ground Trends –Changing information needs – simple to complex –Changing information and communication technologies – single to integrated systems –International investment in ICTs shifting from manufacturing to service activities Approaches –Need to focus more on I and C elements than T in ICT –More emphasis on developing both - Institutions and Infrastructure – the two Is
What is E-Rural Development?
What is E-rural development? E-rural development is the provision of information, knowledge and business services to the people living in rural areas for improving their livlihoods using a variety of electronic means of communication
What are the emerging trends in E-Rural Development? - three major trends…
Changing Information Needs…..
Information needs of.. Landless poor –Entitlements –Employment opportunities –Social services –Education and training –Entertainment –Health –Other Subsistence Farmers –Technologies to maintain at least subsistence levels of agricultural production –Cultural practices –Prices –Weather –Inputs –Credit –Other
Information needs of.. Small farmer –Same as those of subsistence farmer Plus.. –Market opportunities Where to market What to market When to market Developing market niches –Farm management –Technologies –Agricultural policies –Other Medium to large farmers –Same as those for small farmers PLUS…. –How to influence agricultural policies –Management and administration –Technologies –Environment rules and regulations –Other
More holistic information and knowledge – multisectoral and multidisciplinary in nature.. from A….Z –Agriculture –Business - Biology –Culture - Credit –Debt –Education, Entitlements - Entertainment – Environment –Foods – Forestry –Government services, Genetics, GMOs –Industry –Health, Horoscope –Job opportunities –Land titles, laws, Licenses –Market, Microfinance, Manufacturing, Matrimony –Nutrition –Recreation –Social benefits –Technology, Trade, Tourism –Weather –Zoology
Common theme which emerges is Demand for information and knowledge is on the increase, is becoming complex, is a factor of production and is becoming a basic need… But must be –Timely –Relevant –Easily accessible –Understandable –Affordable
even if it is scribbled on the back of an envelope!
Evolution of ICT Clay Tablets 1800 BC 0 AD Latin texts Woodblock printing Printing press Telegraph Television Internet Photos Microchip
Information and Communication Technologies – ICTs –Are tools that help build human network, increase public awareness and provide access to information and knowledge for the use of people –Consists of a range of communication media and devices Print- Internet Telephone- Remote Sensing Fax- GIS Radio- RFID Television - and technologies on the drawing boards… Video Audio Computer Definition of ICT
Emerging trends in ICT – single to integrated, complex systems Print Radio Telephone Films Audio Television Video Computer Internet GIS RFID Other… –Multimedia information & knowledge centers providing –Multi-sectoral – Multi-disciplinary content From –Multiple sources To serve –Multiple users –With feed-back mechanisms Essential elements Enabling policy environment to promote access in rural areas – pricing, competition, regulatory env., etc Relevant Content Telecommunication infrastructure Institutional linkages and capacity building Incentives for retaining skilled people and private sector involvement Existing tools Present… future
Trends … –International investment in ICTs shifting from manufacturing to service activities Marketed services become a larger share of economic activity –Because of greater domestic de-regulation –Competition –Trade liberalization Outsourcing
MDGs and ICTs Sustainable Poverty Reduction –Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (Goal 1) –Ensure environmental sustainability (Goal 7) Education –Achieve universal primary education (Goal 2) Empowerment –Promote gender equality and empower women (Goal 3) Health –Reduce Child Mortality (Goal 4) –Improve maternal health (Goal 5) –Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases (Goal 6) Partnership –Develop a global partnership for development (Goal 8) Market information to increase negotiating power of farmers Information system for flood protection system, GIS systems combat illegal logging, monitoring land use School networks, Electronic libraries, digital literacy Developing entrepreneurship skills, radio and television programs by and for rural people, building new forms of community networks and alliances Bringing latest medical advances to remote areas through tele-medicine, use of PDAs to improve management and monitoring of health care Global communications, internet have helped increase trade in the services sector between developed and developing countries – and created new partnerships and jobs
What are the approaches in E-rural development? – a practical framework
Basic principles.. Need to place more emphasis on.. –I : Information - needs assessment, indigenous knowledge, intellectual property rights, freedom of information, and to make it as another BASIC NEED –C: Improving Communication, Content, Connectivity, Capacity building –T:Build on existing traditional technologies along with modern technologies
Objective To enable the free flow of information and knowledge to improve decision making and participation of rural households, communities, enterprises, institutions, etc for economic growth
Agriculture - Market prices of inputs and outputs Ministry of Agriculture User Information Needs Assessment Print Single Media Single User Farmers Feedback Single Source Single sector & Single area
To An increasingly complex… –Modular approach using multi media to develop multi- disciplinary and multi-sectoral e-rural development services from multiple sources to multiple users with built in user e-needs assessment and feedback mechanisms: The Four M modular approach for e-rural development services* *Approach has been adapted from the approach taken to help develop a rural information and knowledge system in Russia. More information is available in the following link to the case study on Russia - Rural information and knowledge system –http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/essdext.nsf/11DocByUnid/AB4B3D8CABFAC C E6C/$FILE/Annex4SuccessfulBankOperationsinAgricultureandRuralDevelopment.pdf
Mechanisms for Content Development and Partnership arrangements with Users Sources Partners NGOs Academic Institutions Government institutions Private sector Internet Multi-national Cos International Institutions Diaspora User Information Knowledge Capacity Needs Assessment PrintRadioVideoComputer/InternetTV Exhibitions & Fairs M ultiple – Communication channels M ultiple Users Rural HouseholdsEntrepreneursGovernmentSchoolsHospitals Framework for E-Rural Development Services Feedback M ultiple-sources -partners M ultiple-disciplines -sectors, content -partnerships
Replicability Modular nature of the approach taken Lends itself to the design of the least cost and most appropriate ways for developing e-rural development service delivery mechanisms One which would address user needs of the rural population – ranging from traditional and tested radio, print and television dissemination mechanisms to modern high technologies using high speed computers and internet.
SCALABILITY Builds on Available Information Technology Infrastructure Capacity in existing institutions involved with provision of information, knowledge and business services and training
How to design E-Rural Development Services? - implementation steps
Implementation Steps.. Step One: End user information, knowledge, business, capacity needs assessment of target users in the rural areas –farm and non-farm population –Local government –Rural enterprises –Hospitals –Schools, universities and training institutions –others. Step Two: Development of appropriate content and partnerships –content and partnerships to meet user needs, Public, private, academic, non-governmental institutions publicly available content from the World Wide Web and adapted to meet the needs of the rural population Other Step Three: Dissemination of content and partnership linkages through a variety of information communication technologies – such as TV, video, CD rom, print, , internet, teleconferencing, etc. Step Four: Ongoing feedback for monitoring and evaluation –for content improvement, selection of appropriate media, cost recovery mechanisms, assessing changing demands for new types of information, knowledge and business opportunities by different types of end-users
Wide variety of e-rural development centers.. Rural kiosks Telecenters E-Sewa centers Community Technology Learning Centers Distance learning centers Rural Information and Knowledge Centers
What has worked and what has not worked? – examples
Examples What has not worked…
Why some IT projects have failed? Some reasons.. More than half of 134 large companies listed in UK, US, Africa, Australia and Europe surveyed by KPMG* had a failed IT project in –Reasons Inadequate planning Poor scope management Insufficient communication between IT departments and business Source: www. computing.co.uk
Mozambique – where the telecenter did not work* Why? Because the telecenter was plagued by huge telephone bills and could not recover these from customers –Charges were levied for failed attempts to connect to the internet via long-distance dial-up – and were slow when connected – the telephone company TDM billed the telecenter for a three minute charge for each attempt made plus a long-distance charge to connect to the POP in Maputo –---- Points to the need for effective regulation and demand aggregation – calls for a critical mass of telecenters across the country to negotiate better prices for connectivity * Source:
Examples What is working..
E-Choupal – a private sector initiative by ITC, India Building Blocks ; One-stop-shop, offering … Relevant and real time Information (weather, prices, news) + Knowledge (farm management, risk management) + Inputs (screened for quality) + Output (convenience, lower transaction costs) ; Interlocking Network of Partnerships to bring in best in class in all offers (ITC+IMD+Universities+Input Cos etc.) ; ICT Infrastructure ; ICT kiosk with internet access ; In the house of one trained farmer – Sanchalak ; Within walking distance of target ; ICT kiosk with internet access ; Warehousing Hub/Store ; Managed by the erstwhile middleman, Samyojak ; Within tractorable distance of target farmers ; Collaborative network of companies – led by ITC Source: S. Sivakumar, 2002,2004, ITC e-Choupal – Profitable Rural Transformation. India. For more information, contact:: P CPC
ICTs for rural poor - a Datamation Foundation Initiative - India Objective: use ICT applications to help chicankari poor women artisans improve their livlihoods in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India –ICT center established –with support from Info-Dev and Microsofts Unlimited Potential project Provided a platform to develop artistic skills, improve designs and respond to market demand – traditional designs and embroidery patterns – made innovations possible Training in computer skills Empowers women Source: Datamation Foundation, India More information could be obtained from :http://www.datamationfoundation.org/infoDev.htm
Macedonia e-BIZ: A New Model for Sustainable Economic Growth USAID Macedonia project, conducted by EDC under a DOT COM cooperative agreement* Objective –help SMEs use ICTs to become more competitive and generate jobs Approach –Begin with demand Identifies "high impact" ICTs that can quickly and significantly improve SME competitiveness –Partner with entrepreneurs who invest in e-BIZ Centers that offer the high-impact ICTs –Establish e-BIZ Centers with a viable business plan *Source: Janice Brodman EDC. Ma, USA. For more information contact :
Achievements After 1 Year 7 e-BIZ Centers –Owned by local entrepreneurs who co-invest –Will directly benefit 1,000 SMEs with 30,000 jobs Experts say these e-BIZ Centers will save or create 10,000 – 23,000 jobs in 3 years Attracted $300,000 foreign direct investment Source: Janice Brodman EDC. Ma, USA
Example: Apparel industry Key industry in Macedonia –30% of Macedonian exports –22,000 jobs Problem: Competing on cost, industry will disappear in 5 years e-BIZ impact: SMEs shift to higher value- added rapid response market niche Source: Janice Brodman EDC. Ma, USA
What we hope to see in the years ahead? – some suggestions
What we hope to see in the years ahead… Establishment of inter-connected rural information and knowledge centers within and between countries providing a range of e-rural development services: –Tailored to meet the multi-sectoral and multi- disciplinary information needs of local rural population –Providing Free and Fee based information, knowledge and business services –Using a variety of communication media
What we hope to see in the years ahead… Integrated ICT strategies aimed at inter-operability and common technology infrastructure across and within ministries Increased role of universities and local population to develop and sharing local content in local languages Universal adoption of freedom of information laws Protection of Intellectual Property Rights of the poor – and indigenous knowledge as an asset Development of information and knowledge markets at the local level Increased role of public sector to provide ICT connectivity to central nodes in rural areas to stimulate private sector involvement to provide value added demand driven services
Plenty WISDOM KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION DATA Scarce Data to wisdom… Present…
The future...work towards.. More wisdom… and less data… NEEDS THE TWO Is: Institutions Infrastructure Plenty WISDOM KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION DATA Useful
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