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Module 6 – Evaluation Methods and Techniques. 13/02/20142 Questions and criteria Methods and techniques Quality How the evaluation will be done Overview.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 6 – Evaluation Methods and Techniques. 13/02/20142 Questions and criteria Methods and techniques Quality How the evaluation will be done Overview."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 6 – Evaluation Methods and Techniques

2 13/02/20142 Questions and criteria Methods and techniques Quality How the evaluation will be done Overview of the Module 1- Methods, techniques and tools 2- Methods for the evaluation of impacts 3- Techniques commonly used for evaluations

3 13/02/20143 Questions and Techniques Each type of evaluation question is associated with specific techniques

4 13/02/20144 Each evaluation question implies a specific approach which will allow the evaluator to gather the elements that he/she needs to build a line of thought that will allow the evaluator to formulate a sound (or convincing) judgement What Does an Evaluation Question Include?

5 13/02/20145 Did the implementation of this program unfold as planned? 1) I will identify what was planned in the original documents Document Review Interviews with various people in charge to ensure that I have a good understanding of the situation How can you give a valid answer to this question? Document review, review of archive files Interviews with people involved in the different modules and the different phases, and with different sensitivities Examples of Questions 2) I will reconstruct what happened in reality

6 13/02/20146 Did the implementation of this program unfold as planned? 3) I will compare the plan with what happened, identify the gaps, and check that the opinions collected on this issue lead to the same conclusions Preparation of a retrospective time chart Interviews with various stakeholders to check the validity of the conclusions reached Organization of the arguments This is how I propose to proceed to answer this question 4) I will decide what constitutes a minor change and a notable change. I will only flag the changes that have had visible consequences on costs and delivery time Examples of Questions (contd)

7 13/02/20147 Did the implementation of this program unfold as planned? Various techniques must be used in this approach. These techniques call for some specific tools Examples of Questions (contd) Techniques Document review File review One-on-one interviews Discussion groupsTechniques Document review File review One-on-one interviews Discussion groupsTools Interview guides Time chartsTools Interview guides Time charts

8 13/02/20148 Second question, to be selected with the group, preferably on efficiency Second Example Follow the reasoning together: How do you answer the question (consider going all the way back to how the question is worded)? What process do you follow? What techniques and tools do you use? Compare with the previous approach.

9 13/02/20149 The term method is generally used to designate the process for evaluating impacts The whole evaluation process consists in tools, techniques and a method

10 13/02/ How do you measure the impact (effects) of a program? This is one of the key methodological issues for evaluations At the Heart of Evaluation: The Measurement of the Effects The rationale of a program is to produce an effect or an impact Long- and short-term impacts Impact Effects Direct results Activities Means Purpose Objective

11 13/02/ Impact Assessment Methods 1.To what extent is it possible to identify the effect (revenues increase, the prevalence of a disease goes down, etc.) 2.To what extent can this effect be attributed to the program (and not to some other cause) Solutions must be found for two problems: To find the best answers possible to these two questions, methods that are specific to evaluation are used

12 13/02/ What would have happened with the beneficiaries if the program had not existed? Impact Assessment Methods The evaluators key question: How do you rewrite history? How do you get baseline data?

13 13/02/ The Only Solution Beyond Doubt: The Ideal Experimentation

14 13/02/ In theory, a single observation is not enough Effect or impact = 13 With equivalent control group. Extreme care must be taken when selecting the control group to ensure comparability. Income level Time Program The Ideal Experimentation Beneficiaries Equivalent control group

15 13/02/ With equivalent control group The Ideal Experimentation Ethical problem (to condemn a group to not being beneficiaries) Difficulties associated with finding an equivalent group outside the project Costs In practice, it is extremely difficult to assemble an exactly comparable control group: Therefore, this solution is hardly ever used

16 13/02/ Effect or impact = 13 Establishment of a baseline study Time Program Income level Comparison with a Non-Equivalent Control Group Beneficiaries Equivalent control group Data on before and after situations is needed.

17 13/02/ Findings on the impact lack precision and soundness. The time series make it possible to reach better conclusions. Effect or impact? Income level Time Program Base Line Study Time series ? Broad descriptive survey Beneficiaries Evaluation without a Comparison Group, Using a Before/After Comparison

18 13/02/ It is impossible to reach a conclusion regarding the impact; While it is possible to say whether or not the objective has been reached (the effect was achieved), the result cannot be attributed to the program. Effect or impact ? Time Program 30 Revenue level Evaluation Using a Simple Post- Implementation Observation Beneficiaries

19 13/02/ Quality Four Broad Categories of Evaluation Methods Equivalent control group (true experimentation) Non-equivalent control group Evaluation without a control group Evaluation by comparison with a control group Post- implementation observation Observation before and after implementation

20 13/02/ Evaluation Using a Simple Post-Implementation Observation Possibilities Very simple to do. Suitable for the evaluation of means and implementation. Allows evaluators to: (i) ascertain how a policy was implemented; (ii) measure its immediate results (outputs); (iii) gain a better understanding of the behaviours of the groups involved and of the tools or mechanisms. Limitations Difficult to isolate the effects of the policy from the other evolution factors. Huge risk of being subjective. Can hardly be used to evaluate the impact or identify a pattern explaining the phenomena that were observed. Causal relations can be suggested but the findings regarding these links are very fragile and cannot easily be expanded to other situations. Techniques used File review, direct observation, expert opinions, case study, statistical surveys, data analyses, calculation of ratios, comparisons with standards, etc. -

21 13/02/ Possibilities Very common. Corresponds to the natural evaluation process: trying to check that the period over which the policy was implemented coincides with a change in some of the indicators. Same possibilities as `previous method. In addition, makes it possible to have a more refined and quantified description of the effects. Limitations Same as for the previous method. But allows evaluators to use more precise indicators and to frequently cross-check results to test their soundness Techniques used Requires the use of a good description of the baseline situation for all the project results indicators. File review, direct observation, expert opinions, case study, statistical surveys, data analyses, time series analysis, calculation of ratios, comparison with standards, etc Evaluation Using a Before/After Comparison

22 13/02/ Possibilities Comparison of the policys target group with a control group with slightly different characteristics. Allows evaluators to (i) better define the impact or the external results of the policy (without affirming there is a causal relation) and (ii) reveal the mechanisms and behaviours that exist** regarding incentive policies. Limitations Limited relevance for identifying causal relations without any ambiguity. By increasing the number of control groups, it is possible to strengthen the findings. When a group is specifically consulted for the evaluation without being equivalent,complex statistical techniques sometimes make it possible to isolate the biases associated with the non-equivalence (quasi experimentation). Techniques used Case study, statistical survey, data analysis, time series analysis, multivariate analysis, modeling Evaluation Using a Comparison with a Non-Equivalent Control Group

23 13/02/ Possibilities The only totally rigorous evaluation procedure, used among other fields, for therapeutic issues (evaluation of the effects of a medical treatment). It makes it possible to identify without any doubt causal relations and, as a result, the specific effects of a policy or a project. Limitations Numerous feasibility problems are encountered in the field of socio-economical policies when trying to assemble an equivalent control group. This group must be constituted before the project or program is launched following extremely strict rules. Can be unethical. Techniques used Statistical survey, data analysis, time series analysis, multivariate analysis, modeling Evaluation Using a Comparison with an Equivalent Control Group (true experimentation)

24 13/02/ Practically all the techniques used in economics and political sciences, especially in statistics, can be used for evaluation. Techniques, Tools, Instruments... Interview Discussion group Literature search Archive file review Questionnaire survey Case study Aptitude or knowledge test Opinion poll Content analysis …

25 13/02/ One of the necessary qualities for an evaluation tool is that it must be able to identify/imagine the technical processes that will allow it to reach convincing evaluation conclusions for each one of the questions. Techniques, Tools, Instruments...

26 13/02/ Techniques, Tools, Instruments... It is not possible, in the time available for this workshop, to discuss in detail the techniques, tools and instruments that can be used. It should be noted that evaluators do not necessarily master all these techniques and they often have to call upon specialists. Some of the most commonly used techniques will be presented as part of the exercises.

27 13/02/ For those of you who want to know more on the techniques, tools and instruments available, there are numerous manuals, guides, etc. on the following topics: Techniques, Tools, Instruments … Data collection Interviews, discussion groups Direct observations, case studies Data analysis...

28 13/02/ Summary of Methodologies

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