Presentation on theme: "ECD Group The World Bank November 8, 2007. Outline of Presentation Status of ECD Services in Turkey ACEVs alternative ECD models From field work to advocacy:"— Presentation transcript:
The Turkish Context Population72 million GNI per capita 5,400 USD Age structure0-14 years24.90% 15-64 years68.10% 65 years +6.90% Median Age28.6 years Population growth rate1.04% Literacy rateMale95.3% Female79.6% * Source: CIA Factbook and WDI
Education in Turkey More than 7.000.000 adults illiterate. Average number of years spent in school is 6. High gender disparities remain: –Adult Literacy Gender Parity Index (GPI) is 0.83. –Primary School GPI is 0.93. –Secondary School GPI is 0.77. –Regional Disparity in GPIs is much higher. Primary School GPI drops to 0,62 and Secondary school to 0,31 in East and South East Regions of Turkey. No widespread early childhood development programs, only 16% of 3-6 yr olds and 32% of 5-6 year olds in preschool.
Turkeys preschool enrollment rates remain low Early Childhood Programs
Status of early childhood education services in Turkey Low public spending: Public spending on early childhood education constitutes 1% of the budget of the Ministry of Education and only 1/1000 of the total government budget as of 2005. In Turkey, basic education gets the largest portion of the education budget. Regional Disparities in Supply: Preschools are located in big cities and in the western parts of the country, making it difficult for people living in remote or rural areas to access these services. Unaffordable Services: Most preschools are private and charge fees that are not affordable to the poor. Expensive access to center-based preschool education makes it difficult for the poor to access preschool education services.
Our Mission The Mother Child Education Foundation (AÇEV) is a Turkish NGO founded in 1993 with a focus on early childhood education and family literacy programs. ACEV programs aim to provide equal opportunity in education to all by targeting preschool children and their families in disadvantaged communities. Since 1993, AÇEV: has been working towards providing equal opportunity in education for all; upholding the view that learning is a lifelong process that must begin in early childhood; supporting the child as well as his/her immediate caregivers and environment.
AÇEVs Main Programs Family Training Programs Mother Child Education Program Mother Support Program Father Support Program Early Childhood Education Programs Preschool Parent Child Education Program Summer Preschools for children in Southeastern Turkey Womens Empowerment and Functional Literacy Programs Womens Empowerment and Literacy Program Engagement in education policy dialogue and advocacy 7 is too Late Campaign
Research Program Development Program Implementation Policy Development Program Evaluation Advocacy Partnerships Beneficiary Needs AÇEVs Programmatic Approach
Intervention Methods of AÇEV Educational Programs via TV Publications and Web-Based Resources Advocacy, Awareness Raising Activities Publications and Web- based Resources Educational Programs Via TV Short Training Seminars Intensive Training & Education Programs
Our Partners International Partners : UNESCO,UNICEF, UNDP, European Commission, The World Bank International NGOs National Partners: Ministry of National Education Ministry of Health Social Services and Child Protection Agency TV channels (TRT, NTV, Kanal D) AÇEVs Core Team Academic Advisory Board Professional Team Trained Volunteers Local Partners: Communities Local NGOs Local media Local governments
Target Group A home-based, low cost, preschool program, targeting socio-economically disadvantaged mothers of 6 year olds. Aim Developed to empower mothers by supporting them in their parenting roles and equipping them with the knowledge and tools necessary for fostering the cognitive development of their children. Duration 25 weeks, 2 hours a week Mother Child Education Program
Mother Support Program Target Group mothers of 3-9 year olds Aim Developed to empower mothers by supporting them in their parenting roles, strenghtening their communication with their children Duration 13 weeks, 2 hours a week
Target Group Fathers of 2-10 year olds Aim to encourage and support fathers to take a more positive and active role in their child's development. Specific focus is placed on raising awareness about child-rearing, child development, parenting, communication within the family and health issues pertaining to this age group. Duration 13 weeks, 2 hours a week Father Support Program
Preschool Parent Child Education Program Target Group children attending state run preschools and their parents Aim Developed to empower parents by supporting them in their parenting roles and equipping teachers and parents with the knowledge and tools necessary for fostering the cognitive development of children. Also strenghtening family school cooperation. Duration 28 weeks for children 8 meetings for parent/ one meeting per month
Summer Schools for Children in Southeastern Turkey Target Group high risk 6 years old children who are in low socio economic situation Aim Summer program for 6 year olds which aims to prepare children for school cognitively, linguistically and socially. It runs concurrently with a mother support program. Duration 10 weeks
Target Group illiterate women Aim A program which aims to impart basic literacy skills to illiterate women in society and to aid them in developing functional literacy skills in a relatively short period of time. The program specifically focuses on motivating the participants to use literacy skills in their daily lives. Duration 3 months / 3 days a week Womens Empowerment and Literacy Program
An Evaluation of the Functional Adult Literacy Program (1997) An Evaluation of the Mother Child Education Program(A Fair Chance) (1998) Adult Literacy: Issues of Personal and Community Development (2000) Functional Literacy, Television News and Social Participation: Linkages Between Mass Media and Empowerment of Women (2000) An Evaluation of the Preschool Parent Child Programs Anatolian Pilot Implementation Project (2000-2001) Need Assessment in Early Childhood Education and An Evaluation of Childrens Level of Linguistic Competence in Three Provinces of Turkey (2002) An Evaluation of the Effects of TV Program Entitled Will You Play With Me? (2003) Continuing Effects of Early Intervantion in Adult Life (2004) A Cost Benefit Analysis of Preschool Education in Turkey (2004) Research and Program Evaluations
Mother Child Education Program Results in Turkey A number of quantitative evaluations have been carried out of the Mother Child Education Program in Turkey. These studies show that as a result of the program: Impact on MothersImpact on Children Better relations with their family and child Less negative discipline methods Increased confidence and self- satisfaction More involved in decision making in the home More interested in child's schooling and made more effort for school success Make better use of services in the community Better prepared for school Better academic performance More likely to continue education beyond primary Development as independent individual Form positive social relations More likely to go on to university Earn higher salaries More likely to own computers Bekman, S. (1998) A Fair Chance: An Evaluation of the Mother-Child Education Program
Father Support Program Results in Turkey Regarding Their Children Regarding Their Wives Regarding Themselves Behavior Decreased use of negative discipline methods Start talking to and explaining to the child Start showing more affection to the child Start spending more time with the child Have become more tolerant Have become closer to the child Started warning, talking to and explaining to the mother More tolerant Better communication Talking and explaining to others about the contents of the program Hasbecome more social and has better communication with others. Perception Started considering his child as an individual More careful about keeping promises Has become more knowledgable and gained a new perspectice regarding child development Is proud of himself Is more flexible Source: Kocak, A. (2004) Evaluation Report Of The Father Support Program
Womens Empowerment Program Results in Turkey IssueSituation analyzedPre-test ResponsePost-test response Womens right to choose a spouse In this section of the narrative her father wants to marry Belmar to an older man. The participant is asked what she would do if she were in Belmas place Her father can give her [hand] even if she doesnt want to get married. She shouldnt go against her father. I wouldnt go against my father either She has a right to decide. Her father is marrying her off for money. She should complain to the police. I wouldnt marry off my daughter. Right to find employment Belma has married Ahmet who has a limited income. Belma wants to work outside the house to help support her family but Ahmets family does not permit her to work. The question asks the participant how she would react in similar circumstances. If her family doesnt permit, she cannot work. She should talk to them. I would talk to them and if they permitted, then I would work She has a lot of rights. She should talk with her husband to convince him. I would also talk with my husband to convince him Domestic violence Belma and Ahmet are having marital problems. Ahmet frequently beats Belma. The question asks the participant why she thinks Ahmet is behaving in this way and what she would have done in a similar situation. He is behaving like that because of work troubles. He is a man, if he doesnt have a job, he may act like that. It is normal. If she asked me, Id say bear with it, I hope it works out, If it were me, I wouldnt be able to anything, what can I do? If I cannot bear it, I might separate He doesnt have a good job, thats why he is upset. He doesnt have a right to behave this way. It will get better in the future. but if it continues like that, I will probably get separated Child labor Belmas father wants to withdraw Bekir, Belmas 11 year old brother from school so that he can work. The question asks the participant what she would do if she was in Belmas situation. It is his father. She cannot do anything A school-age child should definitely go to school. She should go and talk with her father. If it were my brother, I would support him to go to school. First I would talk to my father to change his mind Note: The responses come from the same participant before and after the program. Source: Durgunoglu and Oney An Evaluation of the Functional Adult Literacy Program in South-Eastern Turkey, June 2003
Despite a number of limited statements recognising the importance of ECE, the Turkish government was not prioritising the issue. Starting in 2005, AÇEV tried to facilitate dialogue between civil society and the government for the reform of the education sector and launch new early childhood education programs in Turkey. 7 is Too Late is a campaign launched by AÇEV in partnership with 6 other leading NGOs to: increase public awareness on early childhood education influence a change in education policy and make early childhood education universal in Turkey.. The 7 is Too Late Advocacy Campaign
The Plan for the Campaign Preparation : Analysis of issues and possible solutions Identifying key stakeholders Implementation: Dissemination of research, media engagement, lobbying, conferences, public mobilization, and events. Monitoring and evaluation: Pre and post test about levels of public awareness on ECD. Monitoring policies on ECD to allow for campaign to change course over time.
Thank you Please visit our website for more information on our programs: www.acev.org