2Learning ObjectivesDescribe what management is, why management is important, what managers do, and how managers utilize organizational resources efficiently and effectively to achieve organizational goalsDistinguish among planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (the four principal managerial tasks), and explain how managers’ ability to handle each one affects organizational performanceDifferentiate among three levels of management, and understand the tasks and responsibilities of managers at different levels in the organizational hierarchy
3Learning ObjectivesDistinguish between three kinds of managerial skill, and explain why managers are divided into different departments to perform their tasks more efficiently and effectively.Discuss some major changes in management practices today that have occurred as a result of globalization and the use of advanced information technology (IT).Discuss the principal challenges managers face in today’s increasingly competitive global environment
4What is Management? All managers work in organizations Organizations collections of people who work together and coordinate their actions to achieve a wide variety of goals or desired future outcomes
5What is Management? Managers The people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals
6What is Management? Management The planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently
7What is Management? Resources include people, skills, know-how and experience, machinery, raw materials, computers and IT, patents, financial capital, and loyal customers and employees
8Organizational Performance A measure of how efficiently and effectively managers use available resources to satisfy customers and achieve organizational goals
9Organizational Performance EfficiencyA measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goalEffectivenessA measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which they are achieved.
10Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Performance in an Organization efficiency measures how well or how productively resources are used.effectiveness measures the appropriateness of the goals chosen by a manager.Figure 1.1, page 7
11Why Study Management?The more efficient and effective use of scarce resources that organizations make of those resources, the greater the relative well-being and prosperity of people in that society
12Why Study Management?Helps people deal with their bosses and coworkersOpens a path to a well-paying job and a satisfying careerStudents of management have the potential to compete successfully for interesting and well paying jobs.As managerial responsibility increases and people move up the organization hierarchy, salaries grow with responsibility.Salaries paid to top managers and CEOs are often quite large.
14Steps in the Planning Process Deciding which goals the organization will pursueDeciding what courses of action to adopt to attain those goalsDeciding how to allocate organizational resourcesPlanning is the process managers’ use for identifying and electing appropriate goals and actions for the organization.The strategies determined during planning determine the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization.
15OrganizingInvolves grouping people into departments according to the kinds of job-specific tasks they performManagers lay out lines of authority and responsibilityDecide how best to organize resources, particularly human resourcesOrganizing is the task of structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together (effectively and efficiently) to achieve organizational goals.
16Organizing Organizational structure A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates members so that they work together to achieve organizational goals
17LeadingLeadership involves using power, personality, and influence, persuasion, and communication skillsIt revolves around encouraging all employees to perform at a high levelOutcome of leadership is highly motivated and committed workforceLeading is the articulation of a clear organizational vision for the organization’s members to accomplish through the energizing and enabling of employees to understand what part he/she will play in achieving the goal.An organization’s vision is a short succinct and inspiring statement of what the organization intends to become.Successful leadership requires managers to utilize their personal qualities, specifically: Power, Personality, Influence, Persuasion, and Communication.
18Example - Coach SabanCoach Nick Saban of the University of Alabama leads by convincing his players and coaches to buy into his process“Come to work. Get to work.Grind it out on every play, every day, in the right way.Finish. Finish your preparation, your practice, your job.Focus on the process, not the results. If you do, the results will take care of themselves.”The result for was a national championshipCoach Nick Saban of the University of Alabama leads by convincing his players and coaches to buy into his processCome to work. Get to work.Grind it out on every play, every day, in the right way.Finish. Finish your preparation, your practice, your job.Focus on the process, not the results. If you do, the results will take care of themselves.The result for was a national championship
19ControllingThe outcome of the control process is the ability to measure performance accurately and regulate organizational efficiency and effectivenessManagers must decide which goals to measure
20Decisional RolesRoles associated with methods managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resourcesEntrepreneur—deciding which new projects or programs to initiate and to invest resources in.Disturbance handler—managing an unexpected event or crisis.Resource allocator—assigning resources between functions and divisions, setting the budgets of lower managers.Negotiator—reaching agreements between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.
21Interpersonal RolesRoles that managers assume to provide direction and supervision to both employees and the organization as a wholeFigurehead—symbolizing the organization’s mission and what it is seeking to achieve.Leader—training, counseling, and mentoring high employee performance.Liaison—linking and coordinating the activities of people and groups both inside and outside the organization.
22Informational RolesRoles associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information in the process of managing the organization.Monitor—analyzing information from both the internal and external environment.Disseminator—transmitting information to influence the attitudes and behavior of employees.Spokesperson—using information to positively influence the way people in and out of the organization respond to it.
23Areas of Managers Department A group of managers and employees who work together and possess similar skills or use the same knowledge, tools, or techniques
25Levels of Management First-line managers Middle managers responsible for the daily supervision of the nonmanagerial employeesMiddle managersSupervises first-line managersresponsible for finding the best way to use resources to achieve organizational goals
26Levels of Management Top managers responsible for the performance of all departmentsestablish organizational goalsdecide how different departments should interactmonitor how well middle managers utilize resources to achieve goalsChief executive officer (CEO) is company’s most senior and important managerCentral concern is creation of a smoothly functioning top-management teamCEO, COO, Department heads
27Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial Functions Figure 1.4
28Managerial Skills Conceptual skills Human skills Technical skills The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect.Human skillsThe ability to understand, alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals and groups.Technical skillsJob-specific skills required to perform a particular type of work or occupation at a high level.
29Core Competency Core competency Specific set of departmental skills, abilities, knowledge and experience that allows one organization to outperform its competitorsSkills for a competitive advantage
30Restructuring Restructuring Outsourcing Involves simplifying, shrinking, or downsizing an organization’s operations to lower operating costsOutsourcingContracting with another company, usually in a low cost country abroad, to perform a work activity the company previously performed itselfRestructuring can reduce the morale of remaining employeesOutsourcing increases efficiency by lowering operating costs, freeing up money and resources that can now be used in more effective ways
31Empowerment Empowerment Involves giving employees more authority and responsibility over the way they perform their work activitiesSelf-managed team - Groups of employees who assume collective responsibility for organizing, controlling, and supervising their own work activities
32Challenges for Management in a Global Environment Building a Competitive AdvantageMaintaining Ethical StandardsManaging a Diverse WorkforceUtilizing Information TechnologyGlobal Crisis Management
33Building Competitive Advantage ability of one organization to outperform other organizations because it produces desired goods or services more efficiently and effectively than its competitorsInnovationThe process of creating new or improved goods and services or developing better ways to produce or provide them.
34Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage Increasing efficiencyReduce the quantity of resources used to produce goods or servicesIncreasing QualityImprove the skills and abilities of the workforceIntroduce total quality managementIncreasing speed, flexibility, and innovationHow fast a firm can bring new products to marketHow easily a firm can change or alter the way they perform their activitiesInnovationProcess of creating new or improved goods and services that customers wantDeveloping better ways to produce or provide goods and servicesFigure 1.6
35Example – Spectrum Health Patients rated Spectrum Health Hospitals low on helpfulness and communicatingSpectrum set up an advisory council and made suggested changesBecause of their commitment to quality satisfaction scores improved dramaticallyLaura Landro, “Hospitals take consumers advice,” Wall Street Journal, February 7, 2007
36Turnaround Management creation of a new vision for a struggling company using a new approach to planning and organizing to make better use of a company’s resources to allow it to survive, and eventually prosper
37Maintaining Ethical and Socially Responsible Standards Managers are under considerable pressure to make the best use of resourcesToo much pressure may induce managers to behave unethically, and even illegally
38Managing a Diverse Workforce To create a highly trained and motivated workforce managers must establish HRM procedures that are legal, fair and do not discriminate against organizational members
39Global Crisis Management May be the result of:Natural causesManmade causesInternational terrorismGeopolitical conflicts
40Video Case: Changing Times at Dyson What strategy has James Dyson used to develop and sell products like his cyclonic vacuum cleaner?What leadership qualities does James Dyson exhibit?Chapter 1 Video Case Teaching NoteChanging Times at DysonTeaching Objective: To illustrate several aspects of the management function and managers’ skills through the example of a prominent manufacturerSummary: Determined to improve less-than-effective products, James Dyson has gone from tinkering in his back yard to running a large international manufacturing company that produces innovative offerings. Dyson is a talented designer and engineer who exhibits many leadership qualities.Questions:1. What strategy has James Dyson used to develop and sell products like his cyclonic vacuum cleaner?Dyson has used differentiation. His strategy has been to develop new, unique, and innovative industrial and consumer products that are improvements from existing versions.2. What leadership qualities does James Dyson exhibit?He demonstrates several vital managerial skills. Educated in art and architecture, Dyson has tremendous conceptual skills that enable him to focus on the big picture and identify new opportunities. He has well-developed technical skills in the areas of design, engineering, and manufacturing, and his personality includes a great deal of curiosity and persistence. Dyson exhibits excellent communication skills and the ability to motive people with his obvious enthusiasm for his work and his support of design and engineering in general.3. What do you think is the Dyson company’s core competency?James Dyson’s company has a core competency in innovative design and engineering and constantly strives for product improvement.