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1Chapter PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. All rights reserved. Managers and Managing.

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Presentation on theme: "1Chapter PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. All rights reserved. Managers and Managing."— Presentation transcript:

1 1Chapter PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook © Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All rights reserved. Managers and Managing

2 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–21–2 Learning Objectives After studying the chapter, you should be able to:After studying the chapter, you should be able to:  Describe what management is, why management is important, what managers do, and how managers utilize organizational resources efficiently and effectively to achieve organizational goals.  Distinguish among planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (the four managerial functions), and explain how managers’ ability to handle each one can affect organizational performance.

3 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–31–3 Learning Objectives (cont’d)  Differentiate among three levels of management, and understand the responsibilities of managers at different levels in the organizational hierarchy.  Identify the roles managers perform, the skills they need to execute those roles effectively and the way new information technology is affecting these roles and skills.  Discuss the principal challenges managers face in today’s increasingly competitive global environment.

4 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–41–4 Chapter Outline What Is Management?What Is Management?  Achieving High Performance: A Manager’s Goal Why Study Management?Why Study Management? Managerial FunctionsManagerial Functions  Planning  Organizing  Leading  Controlling Types of ManagersTypes of Managers IT and Managerial Roles and SkillsIT and Managerial Roles and Skills Challenges for Management in a Global EnvironmentChallenges for Management in a Global Environment

5 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–51–5 Chapter Outline (cont’d) Types of ManagersTypes of Managers  Levels of Management  Areas of Managers  Recent Changes in Managerial Hierarchies IT and Managerial Roles and SkillsIT and Managerial Roles and Skills  Managerial Roles Identified by Mintzberg  Being a Manager  Managerial Skills Challenges for Management in a Global EnvironmentChallenges for Management in a Global Environment

6 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–61–6 Chapter Outline (cont’d) Challenges for Management in a Global EnvironmentChallenges for Management in a Global Environment  Building a Competitive Advantage  Maintaining Ethical Standards  Managing a Diverse Workforce  Utilizing New Information Technology and E- commerce

7 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–71–7 What Is Management? ManagementManagement  The planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently. ManagersManagers  The people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals. Resources are organizational assetsResources are organizational assets  People  Skills  Knowledge  Information  Raw materials  Machinery  Financial capital

8 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–81–8 Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Performance in an Organization Figure 1.1

9 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–91–9 Organizational Performance Organizational PerformanceOrganizational Performance  A measure of how efficiently and effectively managers are using organizational resources to satisfy customers and achieve goals. EfficiencyEfficiency  A measure of how well or productively resources are used to achieve a goal. EffectivenessEffectiveness  A measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which they are achieved.

10 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–10 Why Study Management? Proper management directly impacts improvements in the well-being of a society.Proper management directly impacts improvements in the well-being of a society. Studying management helps people to understand what management is and prepares them accomplish managerial activities in their organizations.Studying management helps people to understand what management is and prepares them accomplish managerial activities in their organizations. Studying management opens a path to a well- paying job and a satisfying career.Studying management opens a path to a well- paying job and a satisfying career.

11 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–11 Four Functions of Management Figure 1.2

12 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–12 Managerial Functions Henri FayolHenri Fayol  First outlined the four managerial functions in his book General Industrial Management.  Managers at all levels in all organizations perform each of the functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

13 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–13 PlanningPlanning Identifying and selecting appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization.Identifying and selecting appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization.  The planning function determines how effective and efficient the organization is and determines the strategy of the organization. Three steps in the planning processThree steps in the planning process  Deciding which goals to pursue  Deciding what courses of action to adopt  Deciding how to allocate resources

14 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–14 Management Key Concepts OrganizationsOrganizations  People working together and coordinating their actions to achieve specific goals. GoalGoal  A desired future condition that the organization seeks to achieve. StrategyStrategy  A cluster of decisions about what goals to pursue, what actions to take, and how to use resources to achieve goals.

15 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–15 OrganizingOrganizing Structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals.Structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals. Organizational StructureOrganizational Structure  A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members.  Creating organizational structure: Grouping employees into departments according to the tasks performed.Grouping employees into departments according to the tasks performed. Laying out lines of authority and responsibility for organizational members.Laying out lines of authority and responsibility for organizational members.

16 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–16 LeadingLeading Articulating a clear vision to follow, and energizing and enabling organizational members so they understand the part they play in attaining organizational goals.Articulating a clear vision to follow, and energizing and enabling organizational members so they understand the part they play in attaining organizational goals.  Leadership involves using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills.  The outcome of leadership is highly motivated and committed organizational members.

17 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–17 ControllingControlling Evaluating how well an organization is achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance.Evaluating how well an organization is achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance.  Monitoring individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance standards have been reached.  Taking action to increase performance as required.  The outcome of control is the ability to measure performance accurately and regulate efficiency and effectiveness.

18 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–18 Types of Managers Levels of managementLevels of management  First-line managers Responsible for day-to-day operations. Supervise people performing activities required to make the good or service.Responsible for day-to-day operations. Supervise people performing activities required to make the good or service.  Middle managers Supervise first-line managers. Are responsible to find the best way to use departmental resources to achieve goals.Supervise first-line managers. Are responsible to find the best way to use departmental resources to achieve goals.  Top managers Responsible for the performance of all departments and have cross-departmental responsibility. Establish organizational goals and monitor middle managers. Form the top management team along with the CEO and COO.Responsible for the performance of all departments and have cross-departmental responsibility. Establish organizational goals and monitor middle managers. Form the top management team along with the CEO and COO.

19 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–19 Levels of Management Figure 1.3

20 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–20 Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial Functions Figure 1.4

21 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–21 Areas of Managers DepartmentDepartment  A group of people who work together and possess similar skills or use the same knowledge, tools, or techniques.

22 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–22 Recent Changes in Managerial Hierarchies Factors Creating ChangeFactors Creating Change  Global Competition  New Information Technologies (IT) RestructuringRestructuring  Downsizing an organization by eliminating jobs at all levels in the organization. Reduces labor costs by cutting jobsReduces labor costs by cutting jobs Promotes higher efficiency in use of resourcesPromotes higher efficiency in use of resources May result in low morale and overwork complaints for surviving employeesMay result in low morale and overwork complaints for surviving employees May increase customer complaints about service.May increase customer complaints about service.

23 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–23 Management Trends EmpowermentEmpowerment  Involves expanding the tasks and responsibilities of workers.  First-line managers act as coaches and mentors in providing advice and guidance to teams. Self-Managed TeamsSelf-Managed Teams  A group of employees with the responsibility for supervising their own actions such that the team can monitor its members and the quality of the work performed.

24 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–24 IT and Managerial Roles and Skills Managerial RoleManagerial Role  The set of specific tasks that a person is expected to perform because of the position he or she holds in the organization. Roles are directed inside as well as outside the organization.Roles are directed inside as well as outside the organization. Roles are defined into three role categories (as identified by Mintzberg):Roles are defined into three role categories (as identified by Mintzberg):  Interpersonal  Informational  Decisional

25 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–25 Decisional Roles Roles associated with methods managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resources.Roles associated with methods managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resources.  Entrepreneur—deciding which new projects or programs to initiate and to invest resources in.  Disturbance handler—managing an unexpected event or crisis.  Resource allocator—assigning resources between functions and divisions, setting the budgets of lower managers.  Negotiator—reaching agreements between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.

26 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–26 Interpersonal Roles Roles that managers assume to provide direction and supervision to both employees and the organization as a whole.Roles that managers assume to provide direction and supervision to both employees and the organization as a whole.  Figurehead—symbolizing the organization’s mission and what it is seeking to achieve.  Leader—training, counseling, and mentoring high employee performance.  Liaison—linking and coordinating the activities of people and groups both inside and outside the organization.

27 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–27 Informational Roles Roles associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information in the process of managing the organization.Roles associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information in the process of managing the organization.  Monitor—analyzing information from both the internal and external environment.  Disseminator—transmitting information to influence the attitudes and behavior of employees.  Spokesperson—using information to positively influence the way people in and out of the organization respond to it.

28 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–28 Being a Manager BrevityBrevity High Variety FragmentationFragmentation Managerial Problems

29 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–29 Managerial Skills Conceptual skillsConceptual skills  The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect. Human skillsHuman skills  The ability to understand, alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals and groups. Technical skillsTechnical skills  The specific knowledge and techniques required to perform an organizational role.

30 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–30 Skill Types Needed by Managerial Level Figure 1.5

31 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–31 Challenges for Management in a Global Environment Increasing Number of Global Organizations.Increasing Number of Global Organizations. Building a Competitive AdvantageBuilding a Competitive Advantage Maintaining Ethical StandardsMaintaining Ethical Standards Managing a Diverse WorkforceManaging a Diverse Workforce Utilizing Information Technology and E- commerceUtilizing Information Technology and E- commerce

32 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–32 Building a Competitive Advantage Increasing EfficiencyIncreasing Efficiency  Reducing the quantity of resources used to produce goods and services Increasing QualityIncreasing Quality  Introducing Total Quality Management (TQM) to improve quality Increasing Speed, Flexibility, and InnovationIncreasing Speed, Flexibility, and Innovation  Adapting to bring new products to market faster Increasing Responsiveness to CustomersIncreasing Responsiveness to Customers  Empowering employees to deal with customers

33 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–33 Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage Figure 1.6

34 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–34 Maintaining Ethical Standards Factors Influencing BehaviorsFactors Influencing Behaviors  External pressures from stockholders for increased organizational financial performance  Internal pressures from top management on lower- level managers to increase the organization’s competitive performance and profitability  Societal, cultural, and environment demands on the organization

35 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–35 Managing a Diverse Workforce The Increasing Diversity of the WorkforceThe Increasing Diversity of the Workforce Non-Discriminatory Employment PracticesNon-Discriminatory Employment Practices Performance-Enhancing Benefits of a Diverse WorkforcePerformance-Enhancing Benefits of a Diverse Workforce

36 © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.1–36 Utilizing Information Technology (IT) and E-commerce Benefits of IT and E-commerceBenefits of IT and E-commerce  Makes more and better information about the organization available to outsiders  Empowers employees at all organizational levels  Helps managers carry out their roles more effectively and efficiently  Increases awareness of competitive opportunities  Makes the organization more responsive to its customers


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