Presentation on theme: "Overview of Management"— Presentation transcript:
1 Overview of Management Dr Anthony WemakorDept of Community NutritionSMHS-UDS
2 What Is Management? Management Resources include Getting work done through others.The process of using resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently.Resources includePeople/SkillsTimeKnowledge/InformationRaw materialsMachineryFinancial capital
3 Management is concerned with efficiency and effectiveness Efficiency A measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goal.Getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.EffectivenessA measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which they are achieved.Accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives.
4 Mission and Vision Mission Vision Concerns what an organization is all about. It answers 3 questions:What we are, What we are doing, For whoVisionWhat the organization wants to become in the futureHow the future will look like if the organization achieves its goalE.g. Mission and Vision for US Centres for Disease Control Mission To promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability Vision Healthy People in a Healthy World
6 PlanningIdentifying and selecting appropriate goals and courses of action for an organizationResource allocation.E.g.Goal: to reduce the prevalence of underweight in children under 5 in JisonayiliActivities:Nutrition educationDewormingProvision of safe drinking water
7 OrganizingStructuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals.Creating organizational structure:A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members.Grouping employees into departments according to the tasks performed.Laying out lines of authority and responsibility for organizational members.
8 LeadingArticulating a clear vision to follow, and energizing and enabling organizational members so they understand the part they play in attaining organizational goals.Leadership involves using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills.The outcome of leadership is highly motivated and committed organizational members.
9 ControllingEvaluating how well an organization is achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance.Monitoring individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance standards have been reached.The outcome of control is the ability to measure performance accurately and to regulate the organization for efficiency and effectiveness.Taking action to increase performance as required.
10 Types of Managers Managers The people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals.
12 Types of Managers Types of managers Top managers Establish organizational goals and monitor middle managers.Defining the mission and vision of the organisationResponsible for the performance of all departments and have cross-departmental responsibility.
13 Types of Managers Middle managers Set objectives in line with top managers’ goalsPlan and implement subunit strategies for achieving these objectivesMonitor and manage the performance of sub-units and individual managersSupervise first-line managers. Are responsible to find the best way to use departmental resources to achieve goals.First-line managersResponsible for day-to-day operations. Supervise people performing activities required to make the goods or service.
14 Managers at all levels in all organizations perform each of the four functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
15 Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial Functions
16 Managerial Roles Managerial Role The set of specific tasks that a person is expected to perform because of the position he or she holds in the organization.Roles are defined into three role categories (as identified by Mintzberg):Interpersonal rolesInformational roles Decisional roles
17 Interpersonal RolesRoles that managers assume to provide direction and supervision to both employees and the organization as a whole:Figurehead – performs ceremonial roles,Symbolises the organization’s missionLeader – motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organisational objectives.Liaison - linking and coordinating the activities of people and groups both inside and outside the organization/department.
18 Informational Roles Monitor – scanning environment for information analyzing information from both the internal and external environment.Disseminator – sharing information with other employees.Spokesperson – sharing information with people outside the organisation.
19 Decisional RolesRoles associated with methods managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resources:Disturbance handler - managing an unexpected event or crisis.Resource allocator - assigning resources between functions and divisions, setting the budgets of lower managers.Negotiator - reaching agreements between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders.Entrepreneur - deciding which new projects or programs to initiate and to invest resources in.- adapting themselves and otheremployees to change.
20 Managerial Skills Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect.Human SkillsThe ability to understand, alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals and groups.Technical SkillsThe specific knowledge and techniques required to perform an organizational role.