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Overview of Management

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1 Overview of Management
Dr Anthony Wemakor Dept of Community Nutrition SMHS-UDS

2 What Is Management? Management Resources include
Getting work done through others. The process of using resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently. Resources include People/Skills Time Knowledge/Information Raw materials Machinery Financial capital

3 Management is concerned with efficiency and effectiveness Efficiency
A measure of how well or how productively resources are used to achieve a goal. Getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense or waste. Effectiveness A measure of the appropriateness of the goals an organization is pursuing and the degree to which they are achieved. Accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives.

4 Mission and Vision Mission Vision
Concerns what an organization is all about. It answers 3 questions: What we are, What we are doing, For who Vision What the organization wants to become in the future How the future will look like if the organization achieves its goal E.g. Mission and Vision for US Centres for Disease Control  Mission To promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability  Vision Healthy People in a Healthy World

5 Four Functions of Management

6 Planning Identifying and selecting appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization Resource allocation. E.g. Goal: to reduce the prevalence of underweight in children under 5 in Jisonayili Activities: Nutrition education Deworming Provision of safe drinking water

7 Organizing Structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals. Creating organizational structure: A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members. Grouping employees into departments according to the tasks performed. Laying out lines of authority and responsibility for organizational members.

8 Leading Articulating a clear vision to follow, and energizing and enabling organizational members so they understand the part they play in attaining organizational goals. Leadership involves using power, influence, vision, persuasion, and communication skills. The outcome of leadership is highly motivated and committed organizational members.

9 Controlling Evaluating how well an organization is achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance. Monitoring individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance standards have been reached. The outcome of control is the ability to measure performance accurately and to regulate the organization for efficiency and effectiveness. Taking action to increase performance as required.

10 Types of Managers Managers
The people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals.

11 Levels of Management

12 Types of Managers Types of managers Top managers
Establish organizational goals and monitor middle managers. Defining the mission and vision of the organisation Responsible for the performance of all departments and have cross-departmental responsibility.

13 Types of Managers Middle managers
Set objectives in line with top managers’ goals Plan and implement subunit strategies for achieving these objectives Monitor and manage the performance of sub-units and individual managers Supervise first-line managers. Are responsible to find the best way to use departmental resources to achieve goals. First-line managers Responsible for day-to-day operations. Supervise people performing activities required to make the goods or service.

14 Managers at all levels in all organizations perform each of the four functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

15 Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial Functions

16 Managerial Roles Managerial Role
The set of specific tasks that a person is expected to perform because of the position he or she holds in the organization. Roles are defined into three role categories (as identified by Mintzberg): Interpersonal roles Informational roles  Decisional roles

17 Interpersonal Roles Roles that managers assume to provide direction and supervision to both employees and the organization as a whole: Figurehead – performs ceremonial roles, Symbolises the organization’s mission Leader – motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organisational objectives. Liaison - linking and coordinating the activities of people and groups both inside and outside the organization/department.

18 Informational Roles Monitor – scanning environment for information
analyzing information from both the internal and external environment. Disseminator – sharing information with other employees. Spokesperson – sharing information with people outside the organisation.

19 Decisional Roles Roles associated with methods managers use in planning strategy and utilizing resources: Disturbance handler - managing an unexpected event or crisis. Resource allocator - assigning resources between functions and divisions, setting the budgets of lower managers. Negotiator - reaching agreements between other managers, unions, customers, or shareholders. Entrepreneur - deciding which new projects or programs to initiate and to invest resources in. - adapting themselves and other employees to change.

20 Managerial Skills Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills
The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect. Human Skills The ability to understand, alter, lead, and control the behavior of other individuals and groups. Technical Skills The specific knowledge and techniques required to perform an organizational role.

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