Presentation on theme: "J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.1 IEEE 1900 Committee Next Generation Radio and Spectrum Management Jim Hoffmeyer Western Telecom Consultants,"— Presentation transcript:
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.1 IEEE 1900 Committee Next Generation Radio and Spectrum Management Jim Hoffmeyer Western Telecom Consultants, Inc. IEEE 1900.1 Working Group Chair firstname.lastname@example.org 303-931-3840
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.2 Presentation Outline Problem Definition – the 10,000 foot view –Technical –Common Regulatory Concerns IEEE 1900 Committee –1900.1 –1900.2 –1900.3 –Study Groups Existing and Potential Relations with Other Standards Organizations Summary
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.3 The Buzzwords Software Defined Radio Cognitive Radio Policy-Based Radio Reconfigurable Radio Smart Radio Intelligent Radio Composite Networks Complex technology, regulatory, business, standards and legal issues need to be solved to bring this to fruition
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.4 Man- Machine Interface Software Control Processing Engine (Adaptive Control Mechanism) Information needed for cognitive and policy-based adaptive control mechanisms: Policies (regulatory, operational, user) Sensor information Available RF bands Propagation data Available protocols Performance requirements Information from radio network infrastructure Information to software control processing engine Control Signals Radio Signals LEGEND RFDigital Software Control I/0 Software Controlled Radio (SCR) Illustration of Advanced Radio System Terminology
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.5 Radio Platform Transmit Sense Planning Data Base Monitor Learning Radio Platform TransmitSense Radio Platform TransmitSense Radio Platform TransmitSense Communication Channel Information Exchange Distributed Resource Allocation Negotiation, Contracting etc Tasks, Policies, Rules, Goals Cognitive Radio Note: The arrows shown above should be viewed as representative and should not be interpreted to imply a specific standardized implementation Components of Intelligent Radio Systems
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.6 Control & Behavior Algorithms RFDigital Software Control I/0 Radio Capabilities Software Controlled Radio (SCR) Hardwired or Software Opportunities Sense Environment - Downloadable - Changeable Regulatory Policies Interference Avoidance Policy Controls System Operator Policies Security, QoS, Mission Priorities, etc. Radio Policies Routing, Duty Cycle, Power, etc. Policy Base Policy Processing Reasoning/Inference Conformance Checking … Components of Policy-Based Radio Adaptive Control Mechanism
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.7 Policy-Based Radio Dynamic Frequency Selection Functions
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.8 Some Key Issues Why is there a need for common definitions? What are the different perspectives of the issues: technical, regulatory, industry food chain and business cases? Global (international) issues – What are the commonalities and the differences? Are the issues service related? What issues can be addressed globally (all services and bands of the spectrum)? What standards are needed? –New IEEE 1900 Series – What are the objectives? –What is/will be the role of the ITU? What are the regulatory requirements? What is a realistic vision and timeline for that vision? –Does the timeline and vision differ between services and bands in the spectrum? What additional research is needed? Security issues – what has been addressed and what remains to be addressed?
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.9 Presentation Outline Problem Definition – the 10,000 foot view –Technical –Common Regulatory Concerns IEEE 1900 Committee –1900.1 –1900.2 –1900.3 –Study Groups Existing and Potential Relations with Other Standards Organizations Summary
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.10 Common Concerns of Regulatory Authorities Around the Globe (1 of 2) Increasing demands for access to more spectrum More efficient use of the spectrum Spectrum trading Dynamic frequency sharing Interrelationship of developments in technology, market and regulatory practices Need for a new spectrum management paradigm Pace of technology development – regulation has to keep up or get out of the way
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.11 Common Concerns of Regulatory Authorities Around the Globe (2 of 2) Balance of different types of spectrum management –Command and control – Inflexible frequency assignments –Market mechanisms – The market manages the spectrum within the constraints of the licenses. –License exempt use – Nobody controls who uses the spectrum; power constraints or other mechanisms restrict usage to reduce interference. International Coordination Investment in Equipment Security (ensure that disruption to communication services can not occur as a result of inadvertent or malicious changes to software in advanced communications devices and systems). Interference (ensure that users can use the spectrum assigned to them without disruption). Noise temperature See the bibliography: –European Radio Spectrum Policy Group –ERO ECC PT8 –FCC Spectrum Policy Task Force Report and proceedings on software defined radio and cognitive radio and related proceedings –Ofcom Spectrum Framework Review –Cave Report
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.12 Presentation Outline Problem Definition – the 10,000 foot view –Technical –Common Regulatory Concerns IEEE 1900 Committee –1900.1 –1900.2 –1900.3 –Study Groups Existing and Potential Relations with Other Standards Organizations Summary
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.13 What Standards Are Needed? Definitions and Concepts Interference/Co-Existence/Sharing Conformance, Dependability, Evaluation, Levels of Assurance and Compliance Network aspects of cognitive and reconfigurable radio systems Security Other
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.14 Purpose of IEEE Standards Committee 1900 The IEEE P1900 Standards Group was established in the first quarter 2005 jointly by the IEEE Communications Society (ComSoc) and the IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Society. The objective of this effort is to develop supporting standards dealing with new technologies and techniques being developed for next generation radio and advanced spectrum management.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.15 Current Standards Activities of IEEE 1900 (1 of 5) –1900.1 WG: Standard Definitions and Concepts for Spectrum Management and Advanced Radio Technologies Project Approval Request approved March 2005; many drafts have been created; work primarily being done by email and teleconference calls, but supplemented by physical meetings; international participation. Chair: Jim Hoffmeyer jhoffmeyer@IEEE.orgjhoffmeyer@IEEE.org This standard will provide technically precise definitions and explanations of key concepts in the fields of spectrum management, policy defined radio, adaptive radio, software defined radio, and related technologies. The document will go beyond simple, short definitions by providing amplifying text that explains these technologies from different perspectives. The document will also describe how these technologies interrelate and can be used in a wide variety of communication service environments to achieve new capabilities while at the same time providing mechanisms supportive of new spectrum management paradigms and spectrum access.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.16 Definition of Cognitive Radio/Cognitive Radio Node a.) Radio in which communication systems are aware of their environment and internal state and can make decisions about their radio operating behavior based on that information. The environmental information may or may not include location information related to communication systems. b.) Cognitive Radio (as defined in a.) that utilizes Software Defined Radio, Adaptive Radio, and other technologies to automatically adjust its behavior or operations to achieve desired objectives Footnotes to the definitions –The IEEE recognizes that the terminology commonly used is cognitive radio. However, generally the cognitive functionality may be outside the boundary normally associated with a radio (e.g., environment sensing is a cognitive function that is not normally part of a radio). – The IEEE notes that the terms dumb, aware, and smart, are used in the technical literature but the IEEE does not define these terms at this time. They are additional functional terms that are sometimes applied to radios.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.17 Current Standards Activities of IEEE 1900 (2 of 5) –1900.2 WG: Recommended Practice for the Analysis of In-Band and Adjacent Band Interference and Coexistence between Radio Systems PAR approved March 2005; several drafts have been created; work primarily being done by email and teleconference calls, but supplemented by physical meetings; international participation. Chair: Steve Berger Stephen.Berger@ieee.orgStephen.Berger@ieee.org This recommended practice will provide technical guidelines for analyzing the potential for coexistence or in contrast interference between radio systems operating in the same frequency band or between different frequency bands.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.18 Current Standards Activities of IEEE 1900 (3 of 5) –1900.3 WG: Recommended Practice for Conformance Evaluation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) Software Modules PAR approved May 2005; work has been initiated. Chair: Andre Kruetzfeldt: Andre@aplixcorp.comAndre@aplixcorp.com This recommended practice will provide guidance on how to estimate the conformance with relevant specifications of software intended for deployment into a SDR terminal. Concepts and methods to be used in these analyses will be detailed. This recommended practice will support quality control and testing. The goal of this effort is to assure that SDR software can be deployed with high confidence that it will operate within prescribed regulatory and operational limits. The guideline will apply to wireless network operators and terminal equipment manufacturers to help them define test guidelines that conform to SDR technologies licensed by regulatory authorities.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.19 Current Standards Activities of IEEE 1900 (4 of 5) Study Group A: Dependability and Evaluation of Regulatory Compliance for Radio Systems with Dynamic Spectrum Access Study Group approved March 2006 Chair: John Chapin (Vanu Corporation): email@example.com@vanu.com Depending on level of interest, it may become a new Working Group. Areas of Study –Dependability – level of trust in the correct operation of a system. –Evaluation – Assessment of whether or not a system is correct, i.e., whether or not it complies with a specification »Evaluation of the etiquette »Evaluation of the implementations –Levels of assurance
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.20 Current Standards Activities of IEEE 1900 (5 of 5) Study Group B: Coexistence Support for Reconfigurable, Heterogeneous Air Interfaces Study Group is being proposed by End-2-End Reconfigurability Project Chair: Markus Muck (Motorola, Paris) Depending on level of interest, it may become a new Working Group. Areas of Study –The coexistence of heterogeneous air interfaces naturally occurs in a software- defined radio context where devices adapt their respective air interface usage and Dynamic Spectrum Access strategies to their QoS requirements. In particular, devices operating in a context-aware environment off-load a number of data- streams to one or several different air interfaces which are chosen in function of their availability and QoS. –Uncertainties regarding the efficiency of resource usage strategies in user devices and/or network equipment create significant problems for both industry and regulators. –The above topics will be studied with the view of determining the feasibility of developing standards in this area.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.21 Study Group B / 1900.4 (continued) Study Group B: PAR submitted for Working Group creation (under review by NesCom in december Chair(s): Soodesh Buljore (Motorola, Paris) Vice Chair: Patricia Martigne (FTR&D, Paris) Define system architecture for the optimisation of radio resource usage and spectrum access; standardised protocols at a latter stage in order to provide improved capacity, efficiency and utility within a heterogeneous wireless network wherein devices operate –on multiple air interfaces, therefore spectrum bands –with next generation radio capabilities, Simultaneous connection to more than one Radio Access Technology (RAT) dynamic spectrum access, distributed decision making for radio resource usage strategies –in licensed and unlicensed bands. –Resources : Radio Access Technologies, Frequency Bands & Channels, wherein frequency bands cover multiple channels P1900.B/.4 System which enables optimization of radio resource usage for devices supporting multiple links and multiple radio access technology simultaneously.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.22 More Information on IEEE 1900 http://www.ieeep1900.org/ http://standards.ieee.org/board/nes/ 1000-1999.htmlhttp://standards.ieee.org/board/nes/ 1000-1999.html
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.23 Presentation Outline Problem Definition – the 10,000 foot view –Technical –Common Regulatory Concerns IEEE 1900 Committee –1900.1 –1900.2 –1900.3 –Study Groups Existing and Potential Relations with Other Standards Organizations Summary
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.24 IEEE 1900 Committee on Next Generation Radio and Spectrum Management – Possible Relations with External Organizations IEEE 1900 (Jointly sponsored by ComSoc SA and EMC SA IEEE 802.18 Regulatory TAG IEEE 802.19 Coexistence TAG IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Radio in TV Bands Other IEEE ? ITU-R Study Groups 1, 8 and possibly others SDR ForumOMG End-to-End Reconfigurability Project 802.18 Chair is official liaison person between IEEE and ITU-R Other ) (future) IEEE 1900 has submitted inputs to WP8A and WP8F; new Question on CR MOU being discussed Informal interactions Informal agreement to coordinate documents Informal interactions Through IEEE 1900 Study Group B
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.25 IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Series –802.16 WG: Broadband Wireless Access Working Group –802.18 TAG: Radio Regulatory Technical Advisory Group –802.19 WG: Coexistence Working Group –802.20 WG: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBA) –802.21 WG: Medial Independent Handover Services –802.22 WG: Wireless Regional Area Networks Developing Standard for Cognitive Wireless Regional Area Networks (RAN) Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Policies and Procedures for Operation in the TV Bands Other Relevant IEEE Standards Activities
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.26 What Is the Role of the ITU-R and How Will This Evolve? Current ITU-R Activities In SDR Relative to Question on SDR –WP8A Report on SDR, Software-Defined Radio in the Land Mobile Service. (ITU-R Report M.2064) –WP8F Report on SDR, The Impact of Software Defined Radio on IMT-2000, the Future Development of IMT-2000 and Systems Beyond IMT-2000. (ITU-R Report 2063) –Combined Report - This will include other working parties in ITU-R Study Group 8 (Mobile, Radiodetermination, Amateur and Related Satellite Services ) Near-Term Activities of the ITU-R –Study Group 8 (Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services): Existing Question on Software Defined Radio New Question (DNQ) on Cognitive Radio –Study Group 1 (Spectrum Management) Proposed Draft New Question on SDR Proposed Draft New Question on Cognitive Radio Longer-Term Activities of the ITU-R –New Spectrum Management Paradigm? Note: IEEE is a Sector Member of the ITU-R
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.27 ITU Radiocommunication Sector Questions (1 of 2) ITU-R Study Group 8Question on SDR –Question ITU-R 230-1/8: Software-defined radio (assigned jointly to WP 8A and WP 8F) What should the appropriate ITU definition for SDR be? What are the key technical characteristics that are associated with the design and application of SDR? What frequency band considerations are important to the application of SDR? What special interference considerations may be required in SDR applications? What are the operational implications of SDR to mobile radio systems? What technical considerations are necessary to insure conformance with ITU Recommendations and Radio Regulations? IEEE 1900 has contributed to the two published ITU-R reports on SDR
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.28 ITU Radiocommunication Sector Questions (2 of 2) ITU-R Study Group 8 Question on Cognitive Radio –What is the ITU definition of cognitive radio systems? –What are the closely related radio technologies (e.g. smart radio, reconfigurable radio, policy-defined adaptive radio and their associated control mechanisms) and their functionalities that may be a part of cognitive radio systems? –What key technical characteristics, requirements, performance and benefits are associated with the implementation of cognitive radio systems? –What are the potential applications of cognitive radio systems and their impact on spectrum management? –What are the operational implications (including privacy and authentication) of cognitive radio systems? –What are the cognitive capabilities that could facilitate coexistence with existing systems in the mobile service and in other radiocommunication services, such as broadcast, mobile satellite or fixed? –What sharing techniques can be used to implement cognitive radio systems to ensure coexistence with other users? –How can cognitive radio systems promote the efficient use of the radio resources? –IEEE 1900 will contribute to this work
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.29 GSM DECTUMTSWLAN * * * Frequency (Not to Scale) 850 MHz 5500 MHz Spectrum Broker Spectrum Allocation Manager Network Planning & Management Composite Network Multiple cellular networks Broadcast WLAN etc. Monitors and Controls Access Network Load Allocates spectrum in composite environments Negotiates Spectrum E2R Concept of Dynamic Spectrum Management in Composite Radio Environments Information Source: Reconfiguration Techniques to Enhance Network Efficiency, K. Moessner ;
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.30 Unlicensed Bands –Spectrum etiquette –Opportunistic spectrum access Licensed Bands Interruptible Mode –Spectrum pooling –Primary user (higher priority) & secondary users Licensed Bands Centralized Mode –Multiple operators –Auctions –Spectrum pooling –Dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) Cognitive Radio Scope of Reconfigurability Wireless World Research Forum View of Cognitive Radio and Reconfigurability Information Source: WWRF White Paper by Dimitrakopoulos, Hoffmeyer, et. al. – See bibliography.
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.31 Primarily focused on commercial wireless applications. Reconfigurable radio Networks to support reconfigurable radio SDR Forum Addressing military, commercial, and public safety applications of SDR and CR Definitions Measurements and analysis of current spectrum utilization IEEE 1900 Definitions Concepts Vision Roadmap Guidelines on how to analyze the potential for coexistence, or conversely interference between radio services. SDR conformance modeling. DARPA XG Policy-based Adaptive Primarily focused on military applications. Development of enabling technologies Protocols Wideband sensing and opportunity identification. Policy language framework, machine readable and machine understandable policies Traceability – identification of sources if interference occurs. Verification and accreditation Need for a new regulatory policy framework. WWRF and E2R ITU-R WP8A: Report on SDR for mobile applications other than IMT-2000 WP8F: Report on SDR for IMT- 2000 applications WRC changes to Radio Regulations Ideal Goal: Globally coordinated PBR/SCR/SDR/RR/CR definitions, concepts, vision and interference guidelines Note: This figure does not purport to depict all entities involved in PBR/SCR/SDR/RR/CR/ and related technologies (e.g., NSF, academic research, other standards organizations, etc. are not depicted).
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.32 Presentation Outline Problem Definition – the 10,000 foot view –Technical –Common Regulatory Concerns IEEE 1900 Committee –1900.1 –1900.2 –1900.3 –Study Groups Existing and Potential Relations with Other Standards Organizations Summary
33 CR – Cognitive RadioPBAR – Policy-Based Adaptive Radio RFI – Request for InformationSCR – Software Controlled Radio SDR – Software Defined RadioSR – Software Radio Note: SDR currently is practical for some applications such as commercial wireless basestations, but not for some wireless handsets. Cost, power, size and weight are critical design requirements that must be considered when considering the use of advanced radio technologies. Increasing Flexibility and Reconfigurability SCR SCR + SDR baseband (for some applications) Ideal Software Radio SCR + SDR baseband + SDR RF Hardware Radio 1995200520252015 2004: First SDR device approved by FCC 1995: First RFI on SDR SR SDR Increasing use of software in advanced radios CR PBAR Hardware radio includes firmware and therefore may have significant operational flexibility. Rough Technology Timeline
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.34 Summary The spectrum crunch resulting from the demand for new services in many applications is a major driving factor. There is a complex interrelationship between business cases for new wireless services, technology, standards and regulatory requirements. IEEE 1900 is well positioned to play a leading role in meeting the standardization requirements in next generation radio. Regulators need standards to reference. The IEEE 1900 Committee has already made significant contributions to the ITU-R. The IEEE 1900 Committee is investigating possible formal relationships with the following organizations: –Object Management Group (OMG) –SDR Forum
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.35 IEEE 1900 Meeting Schedule 2007 MonthDatesOrganizationEventLocation January1900.4Working Group Meeting Paris or London March1900.4Working Group Meeting Spain April18 -20IEEE ComSocDySPANDublin, Ireland April16 – 19IEEE 1900Plenary plus WGsDublin, Ireland June1900.4Working Group Meeting Athens July9 – 10IEEE EMCEMC SymposiumHonolulu, HA USA July9 – 10 TENTATIVE IEEE 1900Plenary plus WGsHonolulu, HA USA September1900.4Working Group Meeting Paris September24 – 28OMGOMG Technical Meeting Jacksonville, FL USA September24 – 28 TENTATIVE IEEE 1900Plenary plus WGsJacksonville, FL USA November1900.4Working Group Meeting Berlin
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.36 Abbreviated Bibliography (1 of 2) 1.FCC Proceedings on Cognitive Radio and SDR: –Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, ET Docket 02-135, November 2002 –Authorization and Use of Software Defined Radios ET Docket No. 00-47, Report and Order, September 2001 –Facilitating Opportunities for Flexible, Efficient, and Reliable Spectrum Use Employing Cognitive Radio Technologies, ET Docket 03-108, Report and Order, March 2005 2.Software-Enabled Wireless Interoperability Assessment Report - Software Defined Radio Subscriber Equipment: http://www.safecomprogram.gov/SAFECOM/library/technology/1170_softwareenabledwireless.htm http://www.safecomprogram.gov/SAFECOM/library/technology/1170_softwareenabledwireless.htm 3.European Radiocommunications Office (ERO) Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) PT 8 ECC PT8:http://www.ero.dk/B2FCAAB8-DAAD-43DA-84E7-A6BEA982F907.W5Dochttp://www.ero.dk/B2FCAAB8-DAAD-43DA-84E7-A6BEA982F907.W5Doc 4.Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment (RE&TTE): http://www.ero.dk/B2FCAAB8-DAAD-43DA-84E7-A6BEA982F907.W5Doc http://www.ero.dk/B2FCAAB8-DAAD-43DA-84E7-A6BEA982F907.W5Doc 5.European Radio Spectrum Policy Group http://rspg.groups.eu.int/http://rspg.groups.eu.int/ 6.Moessner, K.; Grandblaise, F.; Caper, J.; Luo, J.; and Mohyeldin, E. (2004), Reconfiguration Techniques to Enhance Network Efficiency, Frequenz, 58, 5-6, pp 132 – 135. Available at: http://www.e2r.motlabs.com/ http://www.e2r.motlabs.com/ 7.WWRF White Paper: Dimitrakopoulos, G., Demestichas, Pl; Grandblaise, D.; Moessner, K.; Hoffmeyer, J.; and Luo, J (2005a); Cognitive Radio, Spectrum and Radio Resource Management, WWRF WG 6 White Paper, Available at: http://e2r.motlabs.com/dissemination/whitepapershttp://e2r.motlabs.com/dissemination/whitepapers
J. Hoffmeyer -- Western Telecom Consultants, Inc.37 Abbreviated Bibliography (2 of 2) 8.11 th CEPT Conference Presentations: http://www.ero.dk/6672A950-B423-4BE0-B532-914DAA65A381.W5Doc?frames=0 http://www.ero.dk/6672A950-B423-4BE0-B532-914DAA65A381.W5Doc?frames=0 9.12 th CEPT Conference: European Electronic Communications Regulatory Forum Presentations: http://www.ero.dk/69D2D33E-0770-44CB-BEF1-9A8C74C04DBD.W5Doc?frames=no& http://www.ero.dk/69D2D33E-0770-44CB-BEF1-9A8C74C04DBD.W5Doc?frames=no& Session 1: Spectrum Management Reform – Who Needs It? Session 2: Ultra Wideband – Pioneer of New Spectrum Use Paradigms? Session 3: Regulatory Approaches Around the Globe Session 4: Alternative Approaches to Regulation 10. Ofcom Spectrum Framework Review (http://www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/sfr/sfr2/)http://www.ofcom.org.uk/consult/condocs/sfr/sfr2/ 11.Radio Spectrum Management Review, Professor Martin Cave, http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/ra/spectrum-review/index.htm http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/ra/spectrum-review/index.htm 12.Wireless World Research Forum http://www.wireless-world-research.org/http://www.wireless-world-research.org/ 13.Multi-Mode Radio Architecture Platforms http://www.mumor.org/http://www.mumor.org/ 14.Japan Radio Policy Vision, 30 July 2003 http://www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/eng/features/radio_policy_vision.pdf http://www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/eng/features/radio_policy_vision.pdf 15.IEICE Transactions on Communications, December 2003: Special issue on software defined radio technology and it application http://www.ieice.or.jp/cs/trans_b.htmlhttp://www.ieice.or.jp/cs/trans_b.html 16.Vision 20/20: Future Scenarios for the Communications Industry – Implications for Regulation (Australia), April 2005 http://internet.aca.gov.au/ACAINTER.131186:STANDARD:1689838082:pc=PC_1650http://internet.aca.gov.au/ACAINTER.131186:STANDARD:1689838082:pc=PC_1650 17.Radio Software Download for Commercial Wireless Reconfigurable Devices; J. Hoffmeyer, et. al. IEEE Communications Magazine, March 2004