Presentation is loading. Please wait.
An Introduction to the ITU
Kevin A. Hughes Radiocommunication Bureau 2 talks on ITU: 1st is an introduction to ITU (aims, structure, ITU-R, terminology); 2nd given by Yvon Henri concentrating more on regulatory aspects which concern space services.
The ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
Founded in 1865 “… is an international organisation within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecommunication networks and services” Foundation for today’s radiocommunications services Arose from the need for governments and the private sector to work together to coordinate the operation of telecoms networks and services [and to advance the development of communications technology] Although an Intergovernmental organisation, it is one in which private sector plays an increasing role
Roles of ITU Regulation Standardisation Development
spectrum management and coordination Radio Regulations Standardisation ITU Recommendations seamless interworking of systems on a global basis technical characteristics/specifications, operational procedures, “best” practices Development assistance to developing countries improving telecoms infrastructure in the developing world catalyst for forging development partnerships increasing awareness of today’s technologies ITU’s role divided into 3 main areas: Prime example is role of managing the radio frequency spectrum to ensure that all radio-based systems can operate satisfactorily together free from unacceptable interference – a consequential major product (of ITU) is the RRs. Represent a set of rules, having international treaty status, governing the use of the radio spectrum by all radio services. Responsibility of ITU to organise and facilitate the complex international negotiations needed to develop the legally binding texts that make up these regulations (such as the RRs). A standards-making body; product known as “Recommendations”; relate to wireless or wired equipment; to its use and operation; efficient use and management of the spectrum; [tariff principles and accounting rates; guidance to “best practices” for countries in various stages of development] To promote the benefit of (new) telecoms technologies to the whole world, with emphasis on developing countries.
ITU Membership ITU founded on principle of cooperation between governments and the private sector Membership encompasses: telecoms policy makers regulators network operators equipment manufacturers hardware and software developers regional standards-making organizations financial institutions ITU shaped by the industry it serves Who are the ITU? Principle Thus a multitude of entities that make up the Union – governmental …….. ITU’s activities, policies and strategic direction are determined by by the industry it serves
ITU MEMBERSHIP Member States (governments): 189 Sector Members: 660
Recognised Operating Agencies Scientific or Industrial Organisations Other entities dealing with telecom matters Regional or other International Organisations Region Telecommunication Organisations Intergovernmental Orgs. operating sat. systems Associates 3 categories of member: governments (administrations) – full rights as regards deciding ITU policy Sector Members – the private sector, e.g. private operators, equipment manufacturers, research and development organisations, broadcasting authorities, etc. Associates, aimed at entities with limited means but with interests focussed in one particular field; thus have limited rights
ITU Governing Bodies Plenipotentiary Conference Council
Constitution and Convention of ITU Council policies and strategy coordination role World Conferences to negotiate agreements serving as basis for operation of global telecoms services Radiocommunication Conferences, e.g. WRC-2000 3 principal decision-making bodies which govern the ITU: Supreme governing body – establishes long-term policy on organisation and activities; meets every 4 years; sets budget; adopts the Constitution and Convention – treaty status Representative body acting between Plenipots; [46 member countries; broad policies; ensures efficient coordination of work] Most usual is WRC; main purpose is to revise and update the RRs – more in next slide
World Radiocommunication Conferences (WRC)
Changes to the Radio Regulations accommodate new systems and services increased demands for spectrum Table of frequency allocations (Article 5) 9 kHz – 275 GHz footnotes Frequency plans e.g. broadcasting satellite plan at ~ 12 GHz assignment plans allotment plans Held every 2-3 years; task is to revise as necessary the RRs – international treaty governing use of spectrum and GSO and non-GSOs; such changes are necessary because of new developments (e.g. new mobile systems, HAPS) for which spectrum has to be found and increasing demands for existing services (e.g. mobile-satellite systems using LEOs); last WRC was in 2000 – next is in 2003 Major feature of the RRs is the Table of Frequency Allocations indicating the frequency bands allocated to which services in which region of the world and also showing whether the allocations are on an exclusive or shared basis; (9 kHz – 275 GHz). Updating and agreeing on this Table is major aspect of a WRC. If a country (or group of countries) wants to deviate from the use given in the Table, then this has to be subject to a consensus decision by the Conference and the change is indicated in a footnote to the Table. Conferences also establish frequency plans for radio services, e.g. broadcasting-satellite plan (frequencies and orbital slots); assignment plans – frequencies assigned on basis of a country’s requirements for each station within the given service; allotment plans – a country is allotted frequencies to be used for given service which the national authority then assigns to the relevant stations.
ITU ORGANISATION Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R)
(secretariat BR) Telecommunication Standardisation Sector (ITU-T) (secretariat TSB) Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) (secretariat BDT) General Secretariat How does ITU organise itself? 3 specialised Sectors: Radio – regulatory, operational, technical aspects Standardisation – wired and fixed networks, telephony services, tariffs, accounting rates Development – emphasis on assistance for dc’s Secretariat for each Sector (abbreviations) GS - administration
RADIOCOMMUNICATION SECTOR (ITU-R)
Aim: “.. to ensure rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits” “.. to carry out studies and adopt Recommendations on radiocommunication matters” From now on, will concentrate on the R sector: 1st point relates to using the spectrum in the most effective manner possible, for the good of all. 2nd point relates to one of the ways by which the sector can support the ITU community to achieve this goal.
ITU-R objective Objective achieved through (inter alia):
World (and Regional) Radiocommunication Conferences Approval of Recommendations Technical studies are required which are conducted in Study Groups Two important ways in which the objective of the R sector is achieved: Through holding and organising WRCs (or RRCs). Through WRCs, the RR are brought up-to-date in the light of new technology and to reflect the changing needs of the ITU members; The production of Recommendations which represent authoritative texts on essentially all areas of radiocommunication technology with which the ITU is concerned. For both of these, technical studies are required and it is in the SGs where the majority of these technical studies are undertaken.
ITU-R Study Groups Groups of experts from ITU membership
Draft technical bases for WRCs (and RRCs) Draft Recommendations technical characteristics operational procedures Compile Handbooks Radiocommunication Assembly Whom do the SGs comprise? Estimated that >1500 persons from the ITU membership attend SGs and their subordinate groups on a regular basis What do the SGs actually do? The fist major task is to prepare the technical bases for WRCs and RRCs; conferences require technical information, data and advice on which to base regulatory decisions and it is the SGs who provide such material for the conferences to consider in their deliberations Secondly, the SGs prepare Recommendations – authoritative texts which provide technical information and guidance on radiocommunication systems, their operation and the associated spectrum issues Thirdly, put together handbooks – particularly valuable as tutorial aids for developing countries. RA: agrees the programme of work within the SGs; RA usually held just before a WRC (i.e. ever 2 to 3 years). RA approves formal Questions which, in turn, “define” the work of the SGs. Amongst other things, the RA also approves the working methods of the SGs and their structure.
Study Groups SG 1: Spectrum management SG 3: Radiowave propagation
SG 4: Fixed-satellite service SG 6: Broadcasting service SG 7: Science services SG 8: Mobile services SG 9: Fixed service Currently seven SGs; the first two deal with more “pure or fundamental” aspects of spectrum management, whilst the remainder address technical issues associated with the various radiocom services. (The last five tend to be known as the “service SGs”).
ITU-R Study Groups Currently 7 Study Groups Subordinate groups
Working Party Task Group Rapporteur Group Joint ……. Coordination Committee for Vocabulary Special Committee (regulatory/procedural) CPM - Conference Preparatory Meeting Currently 7 SGs but Each SG has several subordinate groups each of which addresses a particular topic area. These can be WPs, TGs, RGs, and Joint versions of these when more than one SG is involved. Mention three other important committees which, from an organisational standpoint, are also viewed as SGs. [The CCV – coordinates issues dealing with technical terms and vocabulary arising in all of the sector’s technical texts [including those of the SGs]; the SC which addresses regulatory/procedural matters linked with the forthcoming WRC;] the CPM which takes material from the SGs and prepares the technical bases for the forthcoming WRC.
Scope of Study Group 1 (Spectrum management)
Principles and techniques for spectrum management sharing criteria and methods spectrum monitoring long-term strategies for spectrum utilization Inter-service sharing and compatibility Take each of the 7 SGs in turn - describe their overall scope - take two or three examples of current topics that each is addressing. SG 1 deals with Spectrum Management; although could be argued that all SGs deal with spectrum management, SG 1 addresses fundamental aspects and principles (e.g. involving the effective utilization of spectrum both nationally and internationally) and also techniques to support good spectrum management practice (e.g. spectrum monitoring). Another important area is to study specific questions of inter-service sharing that may arise – typically issues identified at a WRC for which sharing studies are requested and which are not dealt with in the service SGs. A recent example was the revision of the technical procedure for determining the coordination area around satellite earth stations, now contained in Appendix 7 of the RR.
Scope of Study Group 3 (Radiowave propagation)
Propagation of radiowaves in ionized and non-ionized media and the characteristics of radio noise, for the purpose of improving radiocommunication systems Two aspects to the scope: Studying the characteristics of the propagation medium, e.g the neutral atmosphere, the ionosphere, and modelling the effects found therein, e.g. effects of rain on radiowaves. Development of propagation prediction methods for the various radiocom services, taking into account the relevant effects on the propagation path.
Scope of Study Group 4 (Fixed-satellite service)
Systems and networks for the FSS and inter-satellite links (in the FSS), including associated tracking, telemetry and telecommand functions [Read scope]. Scope involves the efficient orbit/spectrum use by the FSS; it includes consideration of the systems themselves, their performance, availability and maintenance; the scope also includes SNG and outside b’cast via satellite; of particular importance are issues of frequency sharing between the FSS and FS.
Scope of Study Group 6 (Broadcasting service)
Radiocommunication broadcasting (terrestrial and satellite) of vision, sound, multimedia and data services primarily intended for delivery to the general public [Read scope]. Abbreviated version of SG 6’s scope; the full version also makes mention of the return channel, used for example for access control and for interactive broadcasting, [and the SG deals with the consequential issues concerning the asymmetric information distribution associated with such systems]. The SG also deals with programme production and the international exchange of programmes.
Scope of Study Group 7 (Science services)
Systems for space operation, space research, Earth exploration and meteorology Radio astronomy Standard frequency and time signals SG addresses a collection of services, all having an essentially scientific nature. Space Operations refer to the operation of space craft – space tracking, telemetry and telecommand whilst Space Research refers to spacecraft used for scientific or technical research purposes. Earth exploration and related meteorological (satellite) services use active or passive sensors on satellites (or from airborne or Earth-based platforms) to obtain information on the characteristics of the Earth and its natural phenomena (e.g. environment); e.g. forest cover, water cover. SG also deals with another very important passive service – that of RA. Thirdly, the SG deals with the Standard Frequency and Time signal services. [Note: It may seem at first sight that many of the services and related issues being dealt with by SG 7 are of concern only to developed, industrialised countries, i.e. concerned with space research and RA. But it should be remembered that the issues under study largely concern frequency allocations and sharing criteria with other services and therefore, in turn, impact upon the use of the spectrum by ALL countries, whether developed or developing.]
SG 7 - some key areas of study -
Allocations for space science services space operations and space research services precipitation radars (~ 35 GHz) Earth exploration satellite service ( MHz) Radio astronomy protection criteria WRC-2000 agreed to new allocations and sharing criteria for science services (particularly to allow passive services to coexist with other active services). WRC-03 will be looking at further possible allocations to space science services in various parts of the spectrum and in this respect SG 7 has been involved in studies on the provision of new spectrum and associated sharing conditions; Examples: - (Res. 723) 3 MHz of spectrum req’d for telecommand uplinks between 100 MHz and 1 GHz - allocations to SSS (high data rate space research missions requiring large bw’s) near 15 and 26 GHz - (Res. 736) new allocations to EESS and SRS around 5 GHz - (Res. 730) sharing studies between precipitation radars and other services at around 35 GHz (e.g. radioloc.); Note – precipitation radars are used for the measurement of rain rate and global water circulation - use of the band MHz for EESS (active)(spaceborne SAR) – forest cover and rate of degradation; (Res 727). Note – frequencies around 450 MHz very suitable for observing the rate of forest degradation; (synthetic aperture radars). Continuing need to study sharing possibilities and necessary criteria to allow RA to coexist with other active services [e.g : concerning (AI (Rec.66)) protection of passive services such as RAS from unwanted emissions where SG 7 has reviewed key Recs (e.g. RA. 769 and RA.1513) concerning protection criteria and acceptable levels of data loss.]
Scope of Study Group 8 (Mobile services)
Systems and networks for the mobile, radiodetermination and amateur services, including related satellite services Although described in only 3 lines, SG 8 has probably the largest mandate of all the SGs. It deals with all aspects of mobile radiocoms, including the next generation of personal mobile coms IMT-2000 and future systems beyond IMT It also addresses land, maritime and aeronautical mobile services, and for all of these services, it deals with both the terrestrial and satellite aspects. The SG is also responsible for the radiodetermination service – involving such topics as Global Positioning Systems. Last but not least, SG 8 also covers the amateur service.
Scope of Study Group 9 (Fixed service)
Systems and networks of the fixed service operating via terrestrial stations SG 9 covers Fixed Wireless Systems – point-to-point terrestrial links, both LOS and OTH. It addresses such topics as performance and availability objectives, RF channel arrangements, system characteristics [and fade countermeasures], and sharing between the FS and other services. SG 9 also deals with fixed systems below 30 MHz, for which there is still a surprisingly high usage. A third, and very significant area dealt with by the SG is that of FWA. This includes systems such as those providing the “last mile” connection to the home, point-to-point and point-to-multipoint distribution systems – all of which span a wide range of requirements in terms of data rate and performance objectives. Finally, a fourth and very important topic dealt with by SG 9, not unconnected with the theme of FWA, is the topic of HAPS.
Joint Studies Joint Task Group (JTG) 4-7-8-9 5 GHz band allocations
WRC-03 AI 1.5 Resolution 736 (WRC-2000) JTG 4-7-8 Sharing in band GHz WRC-03 AI 1.24 Resolution 733 (WRC-2000) As mentioned earlier, studies can often involve more than one SG. Typical examples are sharing studies required for a WRC. The slide shows two examples, each involving SG 7: JTG dealt with allocations around 5 GHz which concerned the MS (RLANs), FS, EESS, SRS and the RLS. One of the issues was the desire to expand the existing band used for spaceborne altimeters and for SAR by an additional 110 MHz [to provide greater accuracy and resolution, respectively]. Other issues concerned sharing criteria between the various services, e.g. between EESS (active) and RLANs. Similarly JTG dealt with allocations around 14 GHz which concerned allocations for RLS, FSS, EESS and SRS. [For example, the studies involved an analysis of the interference environment between non-GSO systems in the EESS and the FSS.] The results of these studies, together with proposed courses of action, will be contained in a report providing the technical bases for the WRC - (next slide).
Study Group Products Technical bases for WRC
Conference Preparatory Meeting (CPM) CPM report to WRC Draft ITU-R Recommendations Handbooks Conclude by spending a few minutes focussing on the output products from the SGs. Firstly, the SGs are responsible for preparing the technical bases for the forthcoming WRC. As has been seen, many of the topic areas studied by the SGs are conference-related and so a major task of the SGs is to provide appropriately agreed text as a contribution to the report prepared by the CPM – the Conference Preparatory Meeting. Also, many of the topic areas are the subject of draft or revised ITU-R Recommendations. Thirdly, an important product of the SGs are the handbooks. [These are essentially tutorial in nature and make reference to Recommendations and how to apply them but usually with considerably more background information to help the user understand the principles involved.]
CPM Report to WRC-03 Radionavigation, radnav-sat and radiolocation services Mobile, mob-satellite and space science services Fixed-satellite and broadcast-sat services Fixed and fixed-sat services and HAPS Maritime-mobile, amateur and am-sat, and b’cast services at MF and HF Other matters Future work programme A quick view of the structure of the CPM report to WRC-03 which runs to some 430 pages. Over 40 separate items have been addressed, reflecting the very long conference agenda. E.g. SG 7 has contributed to parts of Chapter 2.
> 900 Recommendations in 16 series “Standards” in areas of spectrum management and radio technology Result of consensus from meetings of world-wide experts Some referred to in RR Used by spectrum planners and system designers A summary of the current status of ITU-R Recommendations. Rec series: e.g. SA – space applications and meteorology.
ITU-R Handbooks Over 30 published Tutorial in nature
Emphasis on use by developing countries Liaison with ITU-D (and ITU-T) Continuing Handbook programme in ITU-R Most of the SGs have produced one or several handbooks; e.g. Use of Radio Spectrum for Meteorology; Space Research Communications.
Concluding remarks The Study Groups represent a major aspect of ITU-R activities Technical forum for discussion amongst experts Technical bases for Radio Conferences Recommendations and Handbooks Some concluding remarks to finish with: It is in the SGs where the majority of the technical studies are undertaken in the ITU-R sector They provide the ideal forum to allow the world’s experts to reach agreed decisions on major topics in radiocoms facing the ITU today Their main products are the technical bases for conferences and Recommendations and Handbooks THANK YOU!
© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.
All rights reserved.