2Characteristics of La Belle Epoch MaterialismHigher standard of livingDevelopment “zones”Inner Zone Br, Fr, Ger, Belg, N. It, W.AustriaOuter Zone Ire., Iberian Pen., most of Italy, Europe east of Ger.Underdeveloped Zone Afro-Asia
3Characteristics of La Belle Epoch Increased European PopulationGrowth of Cities & Urban LifeMigration from Europe 60 million left EuropeWent to US, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia/N. Zeal.“Second” Industrial RevolutionSteam electricityInternal combustion & diesel engines.Cars, planes, submarines.
4Characteristics of La Belle Epoch “Second” Industrial Revolution Britain “The World’s Industrial Workshop”Corporations limited liability of investments.Mass production.Free Trade [esp. in England]World Markets [Global Economy, Part II]Advance of DemocracyExtension of the vote to the working class.Creating a “welfare state.”
5Characteristics of La Belle Epoch The Appeal of SocialismBy the 1880s, most socialist parties were Marxist [esp. Ger. & Fr.]Not very successful in England.Faith in Science AloneScience at the core of industrialization.“New Wonders” of daily life.Charles DarwinOrigin of Species “survival of the fittest”
6Characteristics of La Belle Epoch Faith in Science Alone [con’t.]“Social Darwinism” Herbert SpenserEugenicsNewtonian Science turned on its headEinstein “Theory of Relativity” nature & energy were separate & distinct.Max Planck Quantum Physics
7Characteristics of La Belle Epoch Faith in Science Alone [con’t.]Professionalization of “new” sciences [anthropology, archaeology,etc.]PsychologyIvan Pavlov conditioned responsesSigmund Freud psychoanalysisThe Interpretation of Dreams The role of the unconscious [the id, ego, super ego].
8Characteristics of La Belle Epoch New Trends in PhilosophyAgnosticismNihilismFriedrich NietzscheÜbermensch “Super Man”IrrationalismExistentialismSören Kierkegaard existence proceeds essenceInternal Religious Strugglesmodernists vs. fundamentalists
9Characteristics of La Belle Epoch Anti-SemitismDreyfus AffairTheodore Herzl Der Judenstaat [The Jewish State], 1896“Father of Modern Zionism”Women’s MovementEmmeline PankhurstThe “New” ImperialismMilitarism glorification of war