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European Imperialism:

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Presentation on theme: "European Imperialism:"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Imperialism: 1880- 1914

2 The what, when, who, and why of Imperialism
What is Imperialism? Economic, political, and social control of one country or territory by another Similar to (almost exactly the same as) colonization, EXCEPT, in colonization an “invading country” tries to control a new territory and replace all the native inhabitants with its own people, whereas in imperialism the “invading country” simply tries to control a new territory economically, politically, and socially while leaving the native population in place (can you think of examples of countries that were colonized?) When was imperialism? Europeans had been colonizing places around the world ever since Columbus (1492) but imperialism didn’t start until the late 1800’s, around 1880 and lasted until the outbreak of WWI in After 1914 Europeans held on to the imperial colonies they already had, but didn’t add many more new ones Who imperialized, who was imperialized? European countries were the chief imperializing countries, there were only a small handful of non-European countries that became involved in Imperialism (USA and Japan) Not all European countries became involved in imperialism the biggest European imperializing countries were: Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, and Spain The areas of the world that were imperialized were principally Africa, southeast Asia, and India

3 Africa During Imperialism: 1914

4 Asia During Imperialism: 1914

5 The what, when, who, and why of Imperialism (cont.)
Why did European countries start imperializing and why did they start in the 1880’s? Industrialization and Economic Motives Military motives Intangible motives Nationalism Social Darwinism New Technologies

6 Two Types of Imperialism: Direct and Indirect
Direct Imperialism: Europeans replaced all of the local officials and government of the areas that they imperialized with European officials So Europeans made all the decisions/policies AND enforced all their decisions/policies in their imperial colonies Pros/Cons for Europeans? Pros/Cons for the native inhabitants?? Practiced by all European countries (except Britain) Indirect Imperialism: Europeans replaced the high ranking officials in the places that they imperialized with Europeans, but left lower level native rulers in place So Europeans made most of the decisions/policies, but allowed native rulers to enforce them Pros/Cons for Europeans

7 Non-European Imperialist Countries
Japan Modernized and industrialized very rapidly between 1850 and 1880 Needed natural resources to fuel their economy Imperialized Korea and parts of China (Manchuria, Formosa) US Took over some old Spanish colonies after the Spanish-American War in (Philippines, Guam) Mostly wanted access to trade routes in Asia (Hawaii, Samoa) Egypt Very briefly involved in imperializing other parts of Africa (Sudan) Ended up getting imperialized by the British after the construction of the Suez Canal


9 Putting it All Together
Q: What was Europe like in the early 1900’s? A: There was an enormous amount of competition between European Countries Economic competition due to industrialization Competition and rivalry due to intense nationalism Competition to see who could control the most places around the world due to imperialism A: There was a lot of tension underneath the surface inside of European Countries Nationalism caused fear and rivalry between nations, but also inside of some countries as well (Britain, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) Economic inequality led to calls for socialist policies and even communist revolution Political inequality led to calls for increased democracy—voting rights for the poor, voting rights for women

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