Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu DNA: The Genetic Material Chapter 9 Table of Contents Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Section 2 The Structure of DNA Section 3 The Replication of DNA

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Objectives Relate Griffiths conclusions to the observations he made during the transformation experiments. Summarize the steps involved in Averys transformation experiments, and state the results. Evaluate the results of the Hershey and Chase experiment. Chapter 9

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Transformation Griffiths Experiments In 1928, Frederick Griffith, a bacteriologist, was trying to prepare a vaccine against pneumonia. A vaccine is a substance that is prepared from killed or weakened disease-causing agents, including certain bacteria. The vaccine is introduced into the body to protect the body against future infections by the disease-causing agent. Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Transformation, continued Griffiths Experiments Griffith discovered that harmless bacteria could turn virulent when mixed with bacteria that cause disease. A bacteria that is virulent is able to cause disease. Griffith had discovered what is now called transformation, a change in genotype caused when cells take up foreign genetic material. Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Griffiths Discovery of Transformation Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Transformation Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Transformation, continued Averys Experiments In 1944, a series of experiments showed that the activity of the material responsible for transformation is not affected by protein-destroying enzymes. The activity is stopped, however, by a DNA-destroying enzyme. Thus, almost 100 years after Mendels experiments, Oswald Avery and his co-workers demonstrated that DNA is the material responsible for transformation. Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Viral Genes and DNA DNAs Role Revealed In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used the bacteriophage T2 to prove that DNA carried genetic material. A bacteriophage, also referred to as phage, is a virus that infects bacteria. When phages infect bacterial cells, the phages are able to produce more viruses, which are released when the bacterial cells rupture. Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bacteriophage Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Viral Genes and DNA, continued DNAs Role Revealed Hershey and Chase carried out the following experiment: Step 1 T2 phages were labeled with radioactive isotopes. Step 2 The phages infect E. coli bacterial cells. Step 3 Bacterial cells were spun to remove the virus's protein coats. Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Viral Genes and DNA, continued DNAs Role Revealed Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9 Hershey and Chase concluded that the DNA of viruses is injected into the bacterial cells, while most of the viral proteins remain outside. The injected DNA molecules causes the bacterial cells to produce more viral DNA and proteins. This meant that the DNA, rather than proteins, is the hereditary material, at least in viruses.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Hershey-Chase Experiment Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Hershey and Chases Experiment Section 1 Identifying the Genetic Material Chapter 9

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Structure of DNA Objectives Describe the three components of a nucleotide. Develop a model of the structure of a DNA molecule. Evaluate the contributions of Chargaff, Franklin, and Wilkins in helping Watson and Crick determine the double-helical structure of DNA. Relate the role of the base-pairing rules to the structure of DNA. Chapter 9

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu DNA Overview Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu A Winding Staircase Watson and Crick determined that a DNA molecule is a double helixtwo strands twisted around each other, like a winding staircase. Nucleotides are the subunits that make up DNA. Each nucleotide is made of three parts: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, and a nitrogen- containing base. The five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides is called deoxyribose. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu DNA Double Helix Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Double Helix Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Nucleotides Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu A Winding Staircase, continued The nitrogen base in a nucleotide can be either a bulky, double-ring purine, or a smaller, single- ring pyrimidine. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structure of a Nucleotide Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Comparing Purines and Pyrimidines Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering DNAs Structure Chargaffs Observations In 1949, Erwin Chargaff observed that for each organism he studied, the amount of adenine always equaled the amount of thymine (A=T). Likewise, the amount of guanine always equaled the amount of cytosine (G=C). However, the amount of adenine and thymine and of guanine and cytosine varied between different organisms. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering DNAs Structure, continued Wilkins and Franklins Photographs By analyzing the complex patterns on X-ray diffraction photo, scientists can determine the structure of the molecule. In 1952, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin developed high-quality X-ray diffraction photographs of strands of DNA. These photographs suggested that the DNA molecule resembled a tightly coiled helix and was composed of two or three chains of nucleotides. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering DNAs Structure, continued Watson and Cricks DNA Model In 1953, Watson and Crick built a model of DNA with the configuration of a double helix, a spiral staircase of two strands of nucleotides twisting around a central axis. The double-helical model of DNA takes into account Chargaffs observations and the patterns on Franklins X-ray diffraction photographs. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering DNAs Structure, continued Pairing Between Bases An adenine on one strand always pairs with a thymine on the opposite strand, and a guanine on one strand always pairs with a cytosine on the opposite strand. These base-pairing rules are supported by Chargaffs observations. The strictness of base-pairing results in two strands that contain complementary base pairs. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Discovering DNAs Structure, continued The diagram of DNA below the helix makes it easier to visualize the base-pairing that occurs between DNA strands. Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Complementary Base Pairing Section 2 The Structure of DNA Chapter 9

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 The Replication of DNA Objectives Summarize the process of DNA replication. Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication. Compare the number of replication forks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA. Chapter 9

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Roles of Enzymes in DNA Replication The complementary structure of DNA is used as a basis to make exact copies of the DNA each time a cell divided. The process of making a copy of DNA is called DNA replication. DNA replication occurs during the synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle, before a cell divides. Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Roles of Enzymes in DNA Replication, continued DNA replication occurs in three steps: Step 1 DNA helicases open the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the two strands. The areas where the double helix separates are called replication forks. Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Roles of Enzymes in DNA Replication, continued Step 2 At the replication fork, enzymes known as DNA polymerases move along each of the DNA strands. DNA polymerases add nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases, according to the base- pairing rules. Step 3 Two DNA molecules form that are identical to the original DNA molecule. Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu DNA Replication Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu DNA Replication Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Snapshot of Replication Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Roles of Enzymes in DNA Replication, continued Checking for Errors In the course of DNA replication, errors sometimes occur and the wrong nucleotide is added to the new strand. An important feature of DNA replication is that DNA polymerases have a proofreading role. This proofreading reduces errors in DNA replication to about one error per 1 billion nucleotides. Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Rate of Replication Replication does not begin at one end of the DNA molecule and end at the other. The circular DNA molecules found in prokaryotes usually have two replication forks that begin at a single point. The replication forks move away from each other until they meet on the opposite side of the DNA circle. Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Rate of Replication, continued In eukaryotic cells, each chromosome contains a single, long strand of DNA. Each human chromosome is replicated in about 100 sections that are 100,000 nucleotides long, each section with its own starting point. With multiple replication forks working in concert, an entire human chromosome can be replicated in about 8 hours. Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Replication Forks Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Replication Forks Increase the Speed of Replication Section 3 The Replication of DNA Chapter 9

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice Use the figure below to answer questions 1–3. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which part of the model represents DNA helicase? A.A B.B C.C D.D Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which part of the model represents DNA helicase? A.A B.B C.C D.D Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which cellular function does this model represent? F.transformation G.cellular respiration H.photosynthesis J.DNA replication Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which cellular function does this model represent? F.transformation G.cellular respiration H.photosynthesis J.DNA replication Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. What is the function of the structure labeled A? A.separating DNA strands B.reconnecting DNA strands C.adding nucleotides to make new DNA strands D.checking the new DNA strands for errors Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. What is the function of the structure labeled A? A.separating DNA strands B.reconnecting DNA strands C.adding nucleotides to make new DNA strands D.checking the new DNA strands for errors Standardized Test Prep Chapter 9


Download ppt "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google