2Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science I. What is Earth Science(Note Objectives A-C On Page 3)Topic 1 Branches of Earth Science-Geology: surface and interior of earth-Astronomy: universe-Meteorology: weather-Oceanography: oceans-Hydrology: water budgets and water systems-Others: paleontology, volcanology
3Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 2 Activities of Today’s Geologists-Origins of the earth-History of the earth-Structures of the earth-Processes shaping the surface-Searching for sources of oil, Uranium, geothermalenergy
14Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 5 What Oceanographers Do-measure ocean depths-look for ocean mineral deposits-study ocean currents-glacial movements-touch on marine biology-underwater earthquakes
17Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science II. The Origin of the Earth (and Solar System for that matter)(Note Objectives A-C On Page 7)Topic 6 Where Earth Science Begins: The Solar SystemA. Hypothesis – A good guess explaining known facts
18Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 6 B. Six facts of the solar system1. All planets revolve around the sun in the samedirection.2. Nearly circular orbits (Actually ellipses)3. Most are in the same plane4. Sun turns on axis (rotation) in same direction ofplanets.5. Most planets rotate in same direction as sun.6. Seven planets have moons and these rotate insame direction as rotating planets and sun.
19Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 7 The Protoplanet Hypothesis1944 von Weizsacker and 1950 KuiperA. Six steps1. 5 billion years ago, gas and dust cloud1 billion km in diameter existed.2. It shrank, why?, and started to rotatequicker.3. Got hot and ignited fusion reaction.4. % of material blown off in a disc.5. Masses clung together within the disk(Protoplanets)6. Uncollected materials exist as comets,meteoroids, and asteroids.
21Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 8 Origin of Oceans (3 Steps)1. Earth grew hotter, due to compression,radioactive materials, and meteor showers.2. Fe (iron) melted and sank, water and gasses werereleased.3. Upon cooling, water condensed into oceans.
22Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 9 Origin of Atmosphere (2 Steps)1. Original atmosphere was from volcanoes.Mostly: water, carbon dioxide, and sulfurdioxide2. First oxygen from breakdown of water at hightemperatures, but most from photosynthesismuch later over billions of years. Nitrogencame from Hydrogen cyanide.
24Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 10 Structure of Solid EarthA. Model – used to help us picture what we can’t see.
25Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 10 B. The 4 parts of the earth1. Inner core1200 km in diameterMade of solid Fe and Ni2. Outer core2250 km thickMade of liquid Fe and Ni3. Mantle2400 km thickFe, Mg, Si4. Crust10-65 km thickNo drilling has penetrated it
27Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 11 How the Continents Formed (Not really sure)A. Two Possibilities?1. Immense single continent formed from forcedout rock.2. From great lava flows over 100’s of millions ofyears.Remember: Today’s continents are different fromthose long ago.