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EARTH SCIENCE Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science.

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Presentation on theme: "EARTH SCIENCE Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 EARTH SCIENCE Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science

2 I. What is Earth Science –(Note Objectives A-C On Page 3) –Topic 1 Branches of Earth Science -Geology: surface and interior of earth -Astronomy: universe -Meteorology: weather -Oceanography: oceans -Hydrology: water budgets and water systems -Others: paleontology, volcanology

3 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 2 Activities of Todays Geologists -Origins of the earth -History of the earth -Structures of the earth -Processes shaping the surface -Searching for sources of oil, Uranium, geothermal energy

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6 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 3 What Astronomers Do -Study of things beyond our reach -Development of investigating tools

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10 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 4 What Meteorologists Do -weather forecasters -study air pollution -study long term climate changes

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14 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 5 What Oceanographers Do -measure ocean depths -look for ocean mineral deposits -study ocean currents -glacial movements -touch on marine biology -underwater earthquakes

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17 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science II. The Origin of the Earth (and Solar System for that matter) –(Note Objectives A-C On Page 7) –Topic 6 Where Earth Science Begins: The Solar System A. Hypothesis – A good guess explaining known facts

18 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 6 B. Six facts of the solar system 1. All planets revolve around the sun in the same direction. 2. Nearly circular orbits (Actually ellipses) 3. Most are in the same plane 4. Sun turns on axis (rotation) in same direction of planets. 5. Most planets rotate in same direction as sun. 6. Seven planets have moons and these rotate in same direction as rotating planets and sun.

19 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 7 The Protoplanet Hypothesis –1944 von Weizsacker and 1950 Kuiper A. Six steps 1. 5 billion years ago, gas and dust cloud 1 billion km in diameter existed. 2. It shrank, why?, and started to rotate quicker. 3. Got hot and ignited fusion reaction. 4. % of material blown off in a disc. 5. Masses clung together within the disk (Protoplanets) 6. Uncollected materials exist as comets, meteoroids, and asteroids.

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21 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 8 Origin of Oceans (3 Steps) 1. Earth grew hotter, due to compression, radioactive materials, and meteor showers. 2. Fe (iron) melted and sank, water and gasses were released. 3. Upon cooling, water condensed into oceans.

22 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 9 Origin of Atmosphere (2 Steps) 1. Original atmosphere was from volcanoes. Mostly: water, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide 2. First oxygen from breakdown of water at high temperatures, but most from photosynthesis much later over billions of years. Nitrogen came from Hydrogen cyanide.

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24 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 10 Structure of Solid Earth –A. Model – used to help us picture what we cant see.

25 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 10 B. The 4 parts of the earth –1. Inner core 1200 km in diameter Made of solid Fe and Ni –2. Outer core 2250 km thick Made of liquid Fe and Ni –3. Mantle 2400 km thick Fe, Mg, Si –4. Crust km thick No drilling has penetrated it

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27 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth Science Topic 11 How the Continents Formed (Not really sure) –A. Two Possibilities? 1. Immense single continent formed from forced out rock. 2. From great lava flows over 100s of millions of years. Remember: Todays continents are different from those long ago.


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