Presentation on theme: "Earth Science Earth Science is the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its neighbours in space. Aspects that make."— Presentation transcript:
1 Earth ScienceEarth Science is the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its neighbours in space.Aspects that make Earth Science different from othersciences :1) it draws from all other sciences (physics, chemistry,meteorology, astronomy, biology, etc.)2) it requires consideration of vast amounts of time withsequencing of events (chronology) and ages.3) it has a global perspective.
2 Major Branches of Earth Science 1) Geology – study of the solid EarthDivided into two broad areas;A) Physical Geology - examines the materials composing Earth and seeks to understand processes that operate beneath and upon its surface.B) Historical Geology – seeks an understanding of the origin of Earth and the development of the planet through its 4.6 billion year history.
3 Solid Earth Seismology – study of earthquakes and seismic waves Paleontology – study of fossils and life on EarthGeomorphology – study of landscape features on EarthMineralology – study of mineralsVolcanology – study of volcanic activityCrystallography – study of volcanic activityPetrology – study of volcanic activityStratigraphy – study of volcanic activitySedimentology – study of volcanic activity
4 Liquid Earth 2) Oceanography Hydrology study of the oceans and oceanic phenomenastudy of the composition and movements of sea water, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography, and marine lifeHydrologystudy of Earth’s fresh water systemsincluding, rivers, streams, and groundwater
5 Gaseous Earth3) Meteorology – study of the atmosphere; weather and climateSpace4) Astronomy – study of the universe and the relationship between Earth and the universe
6 Origin of the UniverseHistorically many ideas about the origin of the universe has been hypothesized:Creationism - where some supreme being (God) created the universe.The Big Bang - an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe based upon discoveries in astronomy and physics.
7 The Big Bang Raisin Bun Analogy Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitesimally small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense, something - a singularity. After its initial appearance, it apparently inflated, the "Big Bang”.Raisin Bun Analogy
8 The Big Banguniverse was confined to a dense, hot, super massive ball of gases20 billion years ago, an explosion hurled this material in all directionsmarked the origin of all matter and space
9 The Big Banggases cooled and condensed forming stellar systems that we call galaxies
10 Solar Nebular Hypothesis: Origin of Solar SystemSolar Nebular Hypothesis:Explained the formation of the solar system through four stages.New text pp
11 Solar Nebular Hypothesis: Approximately 5 billion years agoHuge mass of dust and gases began to contract under its own gravityGas cloud began to rotate faster and faster as it contracted
12 Solar Nebular Hypothesis: rotation caused most material to concentrate in the centerthe central rotating mass of gases was packing tightly upon itself and this caused it to heat up and burst into a newborn sun.remaining dust and gases orbited around the central body . as a flattened disk
13 Solar Nebular Hypothesis: temperatures within the rotating disk dropped and small . particles such as iron and nickel started to formthese particles collided for millions of years and accreted . to form the planets, moons, and other small bodies
14 Solar Nebular Hypothesis: as planets accumulated more particles, space in between . the planets started to clearwith time, most of the remaining debris was swept into . space by solar winds
15 History of GeologyScience is the investigation of ideas. Throughout history, scientific ideas change as new evidence is discovered regarding scientific models and theories.These changing ideas were demonstrated throughout geologic history. One notable change that formed the framework for geologist is the movement from Catastrophic ideas to one of uniformity, hence the birth of the principle of Uniformitarianism.Reference:New text, pages 5 - 6
16 Evolution of scientific knowledge The evolution of scientific knowledge doesnot emerge from the straightforwardaccumulation of facts, but rather from a setof changing intellectual circumstances andpossibilities. (Kuhn)Hypothesisa preliminary, untested, educated guess which provides an explanation to some idea.
17 Theoryan hypothesis that has undergone extensive scrutiny and all competing hypothesis have been eliminated can then be referred to as a scientific theory.explain observable facts which occur in nature. Subject to change.Lawa generalization about the behaviour of nature from which their has been no known deviation after numerous observations or experiments.Describe observable facts which occur in nature.ParadigmA set of belief or values of a person or society.
18 Origin of EarthTo understand the origin of Earth, we must focus on how Earth formed ~ 4.5 billions of years ago.Earth formed as a direct result of the “Solar Nebula Hypothesis”.
19 Early EarthThe Earth was not always layered as it is today. The Earth was a lot like the moon in appearance billions of years ago.The composition of the ancient Earth was thought to be the same throughout.
20 Segregation of EarthShortly after Earth formed, the interior of Earth segregated and took on a layered structure.Heat generated from the collision of particles, decay of radioactive isotopes and residual heat in the Earth’s interior was responsible for melting the heavier elements (Ni and Fe).
21 Segregation of EarthGravity caused great streams of hot heavy liquids to move toward the Earth’s center, melting the lighter rock material and forced it to the surface.This sorting of material by density,(differentiation) early in Earth’s history, is still occurring today, but on a smaller scale.Gases were released from Earth’s interior through volcanoes .
22 Segregation of EarthThe heavier material (nickel and iron) which concentrated close to Earth’s center formed the inner and outer core.Inner CoreOuter CoreThe lighter and less dense material which moved upwards closer to the surface formed Earth’s crust.CrustThe material in between formed earth’s mantle.Mantle
23 Segregation of EarthAtmosphereHydrosphereGeosphereAtmosphere and oceans formed as a result of the gases given off by volcanic out gassing throughout Earth’s history.
24 Origin of Atmosphere (A) (B) During the early stages of segregation of Earth (A), gaseous materials escaped from Earth’s interior, (a process called outgassing) much the same way as gases are released from volcanoes today.An atmosphere gradually evolved, composed mainly of gases released from within the planet (B). Earth’s original atmosphere consisted of; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and several trace gases.
25 Origin of Atmosphere (A) (B) Earth’s original atmosphere had a different composition than Earth’s present atmosphere. Note the following comparison:Original AtmospherePresent Atmospheremainly water vapormainly nitrogen (79%)no free oxygencontains free oxygen (20%)High percentage of CO2less than 1% CO2
26 Evolution of the Atmosphere If Earth’s atmosphere formed from volcanic outgassing (no free oxygen), where did the high percentage of oxygen (20%) in the present atmosphere come from?The main source of oxygen is from green plants. Plants carry out photosynthesis where they consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen.In time the oxygen reached the atmosphere and accumulated to its present day percentages.
27 Earth’s InteriorThe model is based on indirect evidence from the study of seismic waves. The diagram to the left outlines the four major layers inside of Earth.
28 Layers of Earth’s Interior LithosphereLithospherecool, rigid layer located directly above the asthenosphere.approximately 100 km thick, which includes the entire crust and a portion of the uppermost mantle.comprise the tectonic plates (sometimes called lithospheric plates).
29 Layers of Earth’s Interior CrustCrust (two types)Continental Crust – 30 to 40 km thick and has low density. ( sialic rock )Oceanic Crust – approximately 5 km thick and has high density. (simatic rock )
30 Layers of Earth’s Interior MohoMohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho)boundary separating the crust and the mantle.distinguished by an increase in rock density.velocity of seismic waves show an increase.
31 Layers of Earth’s Interior AsthenosphereAsthenosphere (Upper Mantle)located approximately 100 km to 700 km in depth.hot, weak zone of rock that is capable of gradual movement. (semi-liquid, plastic like )This is the layer that the crustal plates rest upon.
32 Layers of Earth’s Interior Lower MantleLower Mantlethis layer is approximately 2200 km thick.consist of high density rocks rich in compounds of iron, magnesium, and silicon.
33 Layers of Earth’s Interior Outer CoreOuter Coreapproximately 2270 km thick.consist of liquid iron and nickel.seismic waves (S-waves) do not pass through this layer.
34 Layers of Earth’s Interior Inner CoreInner Coreapproximately 1216 km thick.consist of solid iron and nickel.
35 Temperature and Density Increases with Depth Temperature inside Earth increases at a rate of approximately 35 degrees celcius per kilometer. This is referred to as the Geothermal Gradient.
36 Temperature and Density Increases with Depth Density inside Earth increases as depth inside Earth increases.
37 Earth’s SpheresThe Earth is a system of four interdependent reservoirs through which matter and energy flows. These four reservoirs are; 1) Geosphere, ) Hydrosphere, ) Atmosphere, and, ) Biosphere.These spheres function as one system.
38 Hydrosphere Geosphere The entire solid Earth from the core to the surface.Examples that we see include the continental and oceanic crust.All of the waters of the earth, including both surface and subsurface waters including ice.Examples include oceans, glaciers, lakes, rivers, and ground water.Hydrosphere
39 AtmosphereThe gaseous layer which surrounds Earth, mainly comprised of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.Examples include the air we breath.The layer of life existing throughout the three preceding spheres.Examples include plants, animals, birds and fish.BiosphereThe spheres formed in the following order:geosphere; hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere.
40 Earth’s SpheresThe parts of the Earth System are closely linked so that a change in one part can produce changes in any or all of the other parts.Example:Volcanic eruptions;- can interfere with surface drainage.- can interfere with incoming solar radiation. Thus, change weather and climate (short term and long term).- can interfere with the biosphere. Sensitive life-forms may be eliminated.
41 Earth’s Spheres Earth System is powered by two sources; 1) Sun (solar energy) drives external processes of Earth. For example, weather and climate, ocean circulation, and erosional processes.2) Residual heat and Radioactivity drives internal processes of Earth. For example, volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building.