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**Why Maps Can you use a square globe?**

Could you fold up a globe and put it in your pocket? Why do we need maps? What types are there?

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**Map Makers Cartography: map making**

Develop a way to put a curved surface onto a flat surface (Map Projection) Mercator Gnomonic Conic Are the most common projections

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Map Projections

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Mercator Projection

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**Mercator Projection Wrap a cylinder around a globe.**

Meridians appear straight. This creates distortion near the poles where the meridians normally come together.

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**Mercator Projection Compass directions appear as straight lines**

Latitude & Longitude are shown clearly and easily measured with a ruler. Shapes are shown correctly.

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Gnomonic Projection

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Gnomonic Projection Imagine a sheet of paper touching a globe at one point (tangent) Little distortion occurs at the point of contact. It is usually the poles.

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Gnomonic Projection There is a great distortion in both directions from the point of contact. Used in navigation of great circle routes Great circle appears as a straight line on these maps.

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Conic Projections

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Conic Projection Cone placed over a globe so that the axis of the cone is aligned with the axis of the globe. Cone touches the globe along one parallel.

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Conic Projection The area near the contacted latitude has the least distortion. Good for studying a specific area.

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Polyconic Projection Placing many conic map projections together can give you a continuous map. The relative shape and size of small areas are the same as the globe.

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Definitions html://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/MapProjections/projections.html Azimuth —The angle measured in degrees between a base line radiating from a center.

Definitions html://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/MapProjections/projections.html Azimuth —The angle measured in degrees between a base line radiating from a center.

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