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Alcohol use has continued to decline among high school seniors with past-month use: 43.5% to 41.2% & alcohol binge drinking declining from 25.2% to 23.2%.

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Presentation on theme: "Alcohol use has continued to decline among high school seniors with past-month use: 43.5% to 41.2% & alcohol binge drinking declining from 25.2% to 23.2%."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alcohol use has continued to decline among high school seniors with past-month use: 43.5% to 41.2% & alcohol binge drinking declining from 25.2% to 23.2%. What does it say? seniors who have drunk in the past are slowing down or stopping drinking High school seniors are drinking What DOESNT it say? Time period, season, holidays, break, expectations Location? Type of student, ethnicity, race, gender Socio economic status, population, sample size Who doing research? How? What about those starting drinking Involved College bound Parent adult trust Trusting relationship Who hanging out with Grades, job


3 GabaAlcoholDepressant endorphinsHeroinOpiate dopamineAmphetaminesStimulant dopamineCocaineStimulant Dopamine/gabaNicotineStimulant Dopamine/seroMarijuanaPsychedelic serotoninEcstasyStimulant/diss serotoninGHBDepressant Gaba/serotoninKetamineDepressant/diss serotoninPCPHallucinogen/dis Gaba / glutamate Barbiturates/ Tranquilizers Depressant/ sedatives

4 Psychoanalytic Oral fixation Unconscious Satisfying needs/desires Curiosity Initial relationships & Early childhood experiences (5-6 yrs) Traumatic experience, self medicate

5 Behavioral Environment Feeling (accomplishment) rewarding Attention Association Rejection

6 Humanistic Artists/musicians/creativity Reach own potential Self worth Internal expectations Maximize abilities

7 Cognitive Thinking/internal sentences Not me Cognitive distortions (rationalize)

8 Bio-psychological Pain relief Genetics Pleasure center Frontal lobe underdeveloped Neurotransmitters – Block – Activated – Mimicked

9 Cross-cultural Ceremonial, traditional, cultural Peer pressure; conformity Media Norms(Social desirability) Group expectations; group think

10 Evolutionary *adapt to environment *genetic characteristics *survival of the fittest *driven to do things that are pleasurable

11 Eclectic BIO psych Social

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14 Describe the impact of this commercial. Explain the mindset of one of the smokers before & after meeting the children. What could you say to someone to convince them to quit?

15 Nicotine Natural stimulant Used as insecticide Small doses… Large doses… Relapse % high Frontal lobes, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala

16 Drug Altered Consciousness Psychoactive Drug = alters sensation & perception: arousal, mood/emotion, attention, thinking, judgment, memory, time sense, self-control Alters synaptic transmission of neurons… *increasing neurotransmitters*blocking *decreasing *mimicking *blocking*influencing

17 Dependence Physical = to maintain bodily comfort. – Occurs with drugs that cause withdrawal – Alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, cocaine, codeine, tobacco, nicotine, morphine, heroin. – Flu-like symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chills, sweating, cramps, AND drug tolerance=Neuroadaptation: Psychological = drug necessary to maintain emotional or psychological well-being. Psychological = drug necessary to maintain emotional or psychological well-being. increase craving for drug, and its rewarding qualities. *can be as powerful as physical!

18 Drug rebound effect: experience of withdrawal symptoms opposite of what drug does. – Depressant withdrawal…excitability – Stimulant withdrawal…depression/fatigue

19 Intensity depends on psychological & environmental factors… Personality characteristics Mood Expectations Experience w/drug, alcohol Setting Full/empty stomach Weight, age, gender Racial/ethnic differences (may affect how drug is metabolized as well)

20 Stimulant Increases activity in body and nervous system. Examples…caffeine, nicotine, LSD, hallucinogens, cocaine, antidepressants, amphetamines.

21 Depressant Decreases activity in body and nervous system. Ex. Tranquilizers, alcohol, narcotics, barbiturates, hypnotics, anesthetics.

22 Danger of synergistic effect I would remind them that if you give a drunk person a cup of coffee, all you get is a wide awake drunk.



25 Patterns of Use Experimental = short term, curiosity. Social = pleasure or relaxation. Situational = cope with specific problem. Compulsive = intense use, extreme dependence.








33 Alcohol Reduces inhibitions Produce feelings of relaxation, euphoria. Slowed reaction time, poor coordination Reduced ability to store new memories, or retrieve old ones Impairs sexual performance. Myopia…worries and second thoughts gone. Behaviors more extreme, blackouts, cirrhosis, organic damage, mental/neurological impairment Most hit rock bottom before aware of problem.

34 Development of a problem… Begin to feel guilty about drinking. Drink more than used to, and gulp drinks. Have extra drinks before or after being with others. Drink at certain times, or to get through certain situations. Drink to relieve feelings of boredom, depression, anxiety, or inadequacy. Feel sensitive when others mention your drinking. Memory black outs or passed out while drinking.

35 Signals not to be ignored! At times you NEED a drink. Drink in the morning to overcome hangover. Promise to drink less, lie about drinking. Often regret what you have said or done. Drink alone. Lost time at work or school because of drinking. You are noticeably drunk on important occasions. Relationships have changed.

36 Paced drinking Think before hand and plan how you will manage it. Drink slowly, rotate w/ non alcohol drink, eat. Limit drinking to first hour of social event. Practice how you will politely & firmly refuse. Learn to relax, meet people, and socialize with out relying on alcohol.

37 Heroin/Morphine/Opiates Euphoria, relief of pain, contentment Loss of appetite, nausea, constipation, coma, withdrawal symptoms, convulsions, possibly death

38 Uppers Amphetamines Cocaine Caffeine Nicotine Ecstasy

39 Amphetamines Synthetic stimulants. Speed up bodily resources. Aid weight loss, combat depression. Wakefulness, alertness, raised metabolism, elevated moods Rapidly produce drug tolerance. Nervousness, headaches, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, high BP, delusions, psychosis, convulsions, fatal heart arrhythmias, strokes, death

40 After affects Dangerous unpleasant Fatigue, depression, terrifying nightmare, confusion, uncontrolled irritability and aggression. Self-starvation, sores, ulcers, brittle nails, chest infections, liver disease, high BP, brain hemorrhage. psychosis

41 Cocaine Extracted from coca plant. Coca cola? Quickly metabolized. Risk for 1 st time users. Increases activity in brains pathways, euphoria, excitations, boost of energy, suppressed appetite Excitability, sleeplessness, sweating, paranoia, anxiety, depression, heart damage, convulsions, heart attack, stroke, injury to nose if sniffed.

42 Once stop using… Crash of energy, and mood. Anhedonia = unable to feel pleasure. Intense cravings. Signs – Compulsive – Loss of control – Disregarding consequences

43 Caffeine Stimulates by blocking chemicals. Wakefulness, alertness, shortened reaction time Restlessness, insomnia, muscle tension, heartbeat irregularities, high blood pressure Physical problems Psychological problems If abused…caffeinism – Cysts in breasts, bladder cancer,heart problems, high blood pressure. – Withdrawal…anxiety, depression, fatigue, headache, flu- like.

44 Ecstasy Rush of energy, feel closer to others, heightens sensory experiences. Designer drug. Problems…toxic, Parkinsons, overheat, liver damage, impure.






50 Downers Barbituates Tranquilizers Alcohol GHB Ketamine

51 Barbiturates & Tranquilizers Sedative drug Depress brain activity – Arousal, wakefulness, alertness, respiratory Calm patients, induce sleep (relaxation) Reduce inhibitions (seconal nembutal) Mental confusion Depression Loss of coordination & mental functioning Unconscious, coma, death Lowers anxiety Reduces tension Addictive, tolerance Impaired motor/sensory functions Impaired permanent storage of new info Withdrawal **Convulsions, coma, death – (especially when taken w/other drugs) Rohypnol Roofies

52 Marijuana (Gateway drug) Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) receptors Highly concentrated in hippocampus Relaxation, euphoria Increased appetite Reduced ability to store new memories Throat lung irritation, lung damage, impaired immunity, long term effects still being evaluated

53 THC in the Brain

54 Why use drugs? Curiosity Availability Belong to a group Social/cultural norms Peers / parents / role models do it Stressful life changes – (occupational, social, academic probs) Escape feelings of inadequacy Delinquency, alienation, rebelliousness Social non conformity

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