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ENGAGING HIGHER EDUCATION FOR DIVERSE LEADERSHIP: Conversations & Collaborations National Challenges, Local Opportunities Daryl E. Chubin & James H. Stith.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGAGING HIGHER EDUCATION FOR DIVERSE LEADERSHIP: Conversations & Collaborations National Challenges, Local Opportunities Daryl E. Chubin & James H. Stith."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGAGING HIGHER EDUCATION FOR DIVERSE LEADERSHIP: Conversations & Collaborations National Challenges, Local Opportunities Daryl E. Chubin & James H. Stith AAAS Center for Advancing Science & Engineering Capacity Research Triangle Park, NC November 30, 2005

2 NC Conversations & Collaborations Educating the U.S. S&E Workforce: Challenges & Opportunities Post 9/11 Challenges: Declining interest/Competition for talent Lack of student & faculty diversityunlike general population Demand for new workplace skills Opportunities: Campus- & company-wide strategies Expanded outreach & recruitment Improved retention to degree & on-the-job

3 NC Conversations & Collaborations The U.S. Mantra from a Spate of Reports The world is flat. U.S. leadership in innovation is at risk. We are losing ground, as measured by R&D investments, national comparisons on pre- college exams, K-12 teachers teaching out of field, etc. We are in a quiet crisisan underrepresented majority of women and persons of color increasingly characterizes the US populationbut not S&E. Trends in STEM interest, enrollment, retention and graduation at all degree levels signal continued underrepresentation of women and persons of color. Despite faculty retirements, globalization, and projected demand for those with technical skills, higher education is seen more as a private benefit and less as a public good. Sources: BEST, Council on Competitiveness, National Academies

4 NC Conversations & Collaborations Trends: U.S. and the World in S&E In 2004, 572K students (undergrad & grad) enrolled in U.S. universitiestwo- thirds of the worlds international students are in the U.S. India (80K), China (62), Korea, Japan, Canada, Taiwan, Mexico, & Turkey sent most to U.S. Australia has overtaken the US and Britain as the destination of choice among fee-paying foreign students. By field, business was most popular (109K) with foreign students, followed by engineering (95K), math/computer science (68K). China is producing 5 engineers for every one the US graduates; the U.S. flunks out half of those who enroll.

5 NC Conversations & Collaborations Dilemma: Fix the Students, Pathways, or College? Students: oDemographic composition oPre-college academic preparation Pathways: oIntervention programsadd-on to formal education oAccess to higher educationcost reduces diversity College Environment: oCultural competence of faculty oStructural supportclimate, career information, mentoring

6 NC Conversations & Collaborations Minority = Black/African American, Hispanic, and American Indian Source: Joan Burrelli, NSF, based on 1999 Common Core of Data, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); NCES, 1998 IPEDS Fall Enrollment Survey; UCLA Higher Education Research Institute,1998 American Freshman Survey (estimate); and NCES, 1998 IPEDS Completions Survey

7 NC Conversations & Collaborations Evidence of UnderparticipationDisaggregated

8 NC Conversations & Collaborations STEM Workforce as a Percentage of the Total Workforce in the U.S., 2003 (Total Workforce =137,736,000) Source: CPST, data derived from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey

9 NC Conversations & Collaborations Interest in S&E majors, as reflected in The American Freshman2004 survey, shows a continuing imbalance in sex ratios9:1 male in computer science, 6:1 in engineering, and 1.5:1 in physical sciences. Womens interest outpaces men only in the biological sciences ( Five out of six engineering students and nine out of 10 engineering professors are male ( In academic settings across fields, women earn less, hold lower-ranking positions, and are less likely to have tenure ( Source: CPST Comments, March 2005 Select Indicators of Persistent Gender Differences in S&E

10 NC Conversations & Collaborations Percentage of Bachelors Degrees Awarded in STEM and Other Fields, 1980-2002

11 NC Conversations & Collaborations








19 STEM Metaphors and Imagery: Whatever Works for You... The Leaky Pipeline The National Imperative The Quiet Crisis The Perfect Storm Gateways to Opportunity A Bridge for All

20 NC Conversations & Collaborations 2003: JuneSupreme Court rulings on Michigan 2004:Jan AAAS-NACME Conference on Impact of rulings on higher education AugAAAS Capacity Center established OctStanding Our Ground issued 2005:FebSloan Foundation grant to Capacity Center to disseminate Standing Our Ground & advise/assist institutions l TimelineRecent Events Affecting Context for AAAS Efforts in S&E Participation

21 NC Conversations & Collaborations Post-Michigan Admissions policies and holistic review Everything else: financial aid, outreach, targeted recruitment, faculty? Challenges by anti-affirmative action groups Failure of Administration to provide guidance except race-neutral alternatives

22 NC Conversations & Collaborations Assets in Making U.S. S&E More Inclusive Legal Primer: Remove barriers Design Principles: Affirm opportunities Conference Report: Document trends AAAS Capacity Center (2004 ): Embodies resources in Standing Our Ground (legal, cultural, research) for changing policies, programs, and practices re student success and faculty progress

23 NC Conversations & Collaborations BEST: Building Engineering & Science Talent source: A Bridge for All,,

24 NC Conversations & Collaborations Lessons from Research/Evaluation in U.S. Start early with rigorous math/science courses for all: Middle school (age 11-14) at the latest Provide career information/role models/mentors: Connect educational requirements with range of opportunities/choices Focus on transitions: Stem losses at key decision points Increase flexibility: Make the system more forgiving to recapture students who change career plans Target underrepresented groups: Intervene through outreach and programs, e.g., summer bridge and undergraduate research experiences, to identify talented students & track progress

25 NC Conversations & Collaborations Competition for talent: S&T v. business, law, medicine Slowing the pipeline: Pre-college to workforce barriers (law, culture, practice) both nationally and on campus Preparing, recruiting, and graduating more homegrown talent (esp. women, minorities, & persons w/ disabilities) Impact of foreign nationals on postgraduate aspirations of U.S. citizens Defense needs and constraints: Demand for U.S. citizens is immediate Re-shaping career paths: Degree options (AA, MS, PSM, PhD) and the postdoctoral appointment Some Issues for Breakout Discussion

26 NC Conversations & Collaborations Needed/Wanted: Leadership Dialogue Staying Power Resources Mainstreaming Advocacy

27 NC Conversations & Collaborations Contact Dr. Daryl E. Chubin Dr. James H. Stith

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