2Hitler Moves Against the Jews 1. How many Jews lived in Germany in 1933?Do the Nazis introduce anti-Semitism in Germany?Why start with anti-Semitic Propaganda?There were 600,000 people who considered themselves practicing Jews- a very small percentage of the population. Concentrated in a few German Cities.There is a level of latent anti-Semitism in Germany. This is common in many European nations. This anti-Semitism grows after the Loss of WWI and the Rise of Communism- many Germans associate this with Jews.Build on the anti-Semitism- grow the anti-Semitism in the country.
3April 1933- First Anti-Semitic Law How do the anti-Semitic laws start?What does it mean to boycott something?How do cities move against the Jews?What does “Juden Verbotten” mean?What does the Average German think?Remove Jews from Public Sector jobs- lawyers, judges, teachers… The laws are progressive- start small and buildNot to buy from them- Nazis ask the people not to buy from Jewish businesses. Post SA men outside Jewish businesses to intimidate people from shopping in them. Also push to have businesses not service Jewish shoppers.Cities pass their own anti-Semitic ordinances- without Nazi prodding. Ban Jews from Parks and other Public Places. Ban kids from swimming pools. Speed Signs- say Jews must travel at an excessive speed on dangerous roads.“Jews Forbidden” start popping up all over Germany- posted by cities, stores, private individuals.Jews small minority so it is not affecting them. Builds on anti-Semitism.
41935- Nuremberg Laws Is Judaism a race or a religion? What was the Law?How is one determined to be Jewish?How many people became Jewish under this law?Why is this period called the 1st Solution?Generally a religion- but there are those who considered Jews a race- and this is what the laws state.Eliminated any remaining rights. Biggest thing is it defined exactly who was a Jew.By heredity- 3 Jewish grandparents= Jewish. Have a Jewish parent. If you have any Judaism in bloodline then you are a mischlinge- mixed blood- 2nd class citizens.Overnight 2.5 million in Germany became either Jewish and lost all rights or mischlinge and became 2nd class citizens.1st Solution- is when Nazis used laws and intimidation to deprive Jews of rights and get them to emigrate.
5Krystallnacht- Nov. 1938 What was the cause of Krystallnacht? What was Krystallnacht? Why is it considered a pogrom?How did the Nazis treat the Jews after the attack?What was the Evian Conference?Germany expelled many Jews to Poland- Poland did not want them and forced them back- Forced into a camp where many starved to death. Herschel Grynszpan was a Jew who had fled Germany before this, but his parents had not and had starved to death. Hershel went to the German Embassy in Paris for revenge. Wanted to kill ambassador- but met and shot one of his secretaries.Nazis had planning a pogrom- but needed a spark- actually had planned to murder one their officials and blame it on Jews- but then this happened. In one night launch a massive wave of terror- destroyed Jewish owned business, homes and synagogues. Many murders. Many Jews rounded up and sent to concentration camps. Considered a pogrom because it was organized before hand. “Night of Broken Glass”Most Jews had insurance on property- the state takes the money. Also fines the Jewish community for the attacks- blames them for it. The Jews in Concentration Camps not released until money is paid for release- many Jews now try to leave but cannot.Meeting of rest of the world to discuss problems of Jews in Germany. Decide they need to open borders to allow them in, but only one nation pledges to take in Jews- Dominican Republic
6The Second Solution What was it? Was it a permanent solution? What is it a new idea?What was the Government General?What happened to the Jewish property?Who was in charge?The setting up of Ghettos in Eastern Europe for Jews. Concentrate them near rail lines.No- it was set-up so that when then Nazis determined the fate of the Jews, the solution could be carried out quickly. Also, isolate Jews and get them out of public sight and mind.No- Ghettos set-up in Middle Ages.The part of Poland not annexed by Germany- it was run by the military and Nazi governors- they could do whatever they wanted here.It was “Aryanized” taken over by GermanyReinhard Heydrich-until his death and Adolf Eichmann
7The Ghettos Where were they set up? Who Guarded them? How did they keep the Jews in and Poles out?What is a curfew?Article #2Normally set-up in the slums area of the city.SS men and Ukrainians- people chosen for anti-SemitismBuilt walls around the whole Ghetto. Also posted signs saying the Ghetto was quarantined due to disease.Jews had to be off the streets after a certain time- those found the street were executed
8The Wannsee Conference When and where was the Conference?What was decided?Who was put in charge?How was the Final Solution to be run?January in the morning. Wannsee- a suburb of Berlin. Set in motion by Goering.The Final Solution- the extermination of the Jews in Europe. Counted Jews in occupied areas and in areas not yet occupied- like Great BritainHeydrich and EichmannIn strict secrecy- nothing was to get out. Jews were to “disappear” Efficiency and speed
9Jewish Badges and Setting up the Camps What were the badges the Jews had to wear?Who else wore the badges?What is the difference between a Concentration/Labor Camp and an Extermination Camp?Who guarded the camps?Where were the camps set up?Used mostly in western Europe assimilation- camps and ghettos. Up to each local commander- most common star of david or a arm band. Used to separate Jews.Other prisoners in the camps so guards knew why each person was in there.Concentration/Labor- not for immediate death- work on some project, or just confine- can still be very deadly. Extermination- kill all who enter, no labor element. Most camps were a combination of Labor and Extermination- pick the healthiest to go work and kill the rest. Treblinka and Chelmno pure extermination.Death’s Heads and Ukrainians And LatviansGovernment General- all extermination camps- so that they could be closely controlled by Nazis to stop any info from making it out.
10The Trip to the Camps Where did the Jews normally go before the camps? What was “resettlement?”How brutal were the trips to the camps?What were the Jews normally told when they arrived at a camp?Generally rounded up and sent to a Ghetto- where they could be there for days or weeks. Then when the Nazis were ready they would round up a group of Jews- or the Judenrat could choose them- to be resettled.Jews were told that they were being sent to a settlement/reservation in the East- usually in the Ukraine, but actually meant one of the camps in the Government GeneralPacked on the trains- sometimes so tightly that if someone died they did not fall to the floor. No food or water. Generally no sanitation facilities. Very cold- wind would whip through cars- sometimes use dead bodies as windbreaks and beds. Disease spread rapidly. Trips could take hours to weeks depending on distance and rail use. No uncommon for entire cars to have all occupants dead on arrival. If you survived you were probably sick and filthy.Told that this was not their final destination- only a place to clean up- especially prevalent at pure extermination camps since there were no barracks to house prisoners. Most just happy to be off of the trains.
11The Selektion How were the Jews forced off the trains? Why were they put in lines?What was the selektion?Was there always a selektion?Use of guard dogs, guards with whips and other JewsGenerally 3 lines- men, women, and women with children. Sometimes another line for elderly- this allowed the Germans to divide the sexes and then process them.The Selektion was choosing who would live and who would die. Jews did not know what was happening- told they were being divided between labor groups and those that would be sent to live in the camp without work. Elderly, very young, sick and women with children all sent to their deaths. The rest examined by an SS doctor to determine health and ability to work. SS doctor would then point which way to go.No- in a pure extermination camp no selektions since there was no labor camp element. Also, if camp had enough workers they would just kill all of the arrivals.
12The Gas Chambers Why were the gas chambers disguised as showers? What other ruses did the Nazis use in the death process?What gasses were used?What happened in the chambers?Jews were dirty and sick from trip- wanted to clean up. Outside of chambers look like houses- have signs pointing way to the “Showers” Nazis did want Jews to panic because this would slow down death process.- Shower heads were fake- vents in walls for gas- covered drains. Usually walls are buried in dirt on outside to seal in gasses.Signs stating the Jews to take tickets for clothes. Signs promoting cleanliness. Also cut hair- told to fight lice. Also signs to breath deeply- to clean out lungs. Use of Jews in locker rooms to calm arrivals. Signs to showers.At first Carbon Monoxide- either Gas Vans- Chelmno, or engines from a U-Boat- Treblinka. This was slow and expensive. So looked for a “better” gas. Zyklon-B- a type of cyanide, crystal that dissolves into gas, that was already at camps- used to kill bugs in barracks. First used on Soviet POW’s to make sure it was effective.People packed in tight- children thrown on top- eliminate air space- so less gas and quicker death. A door from U-Boat seals chamber- stop air leak. SS doctor watches process through eyeglass in door and listens through a stethoscope place in the door to all are dead. Zyklon-B dropped through vents- people panic- scratches on bodies and walls- then sleep- then death. Fans turned on to suck out gas. Door open- bodies still upright- fall out.
13The Crematoria Why not bury bodies or burn in pits? What were the crematoria?What happened to the bodies before sent to the crematoria?What to do with the Ash?Burials took along time, not very secretive, and the Nazis ran out of space rather quickly. Used giant pits at first to burn bodies- but again not secretive at all, also had to contend with pits filling with fat, which would catch on fire and pour down hills. Moving bodies to the pits took a long timeSpecial built ovens to burn bodies down to ash. Usually built on top of Gas Chambers- used elevators to bring bodies up. Have to run for hours to dispose of bodies. Black smoke from chimney could be seen for miles.Bodies were checked for hidden valuables, gold teeth were pulled. Any interesting tattoos were sometimes cut off and kept.Huge piles of human ash were collected. Sometimes dropped into rivers- but led to rivers being silted up or rerouting them. Also spread around camps- at Auschwitz was a marsh that was filled in up to 3-4 feet deep of ash. Sometimes used to make soap. Also, sent back to Germany to use as a fertilizer- farmers not told what it was.
14Those Picked to Live Who was picked to live? How were they marked? What was life like?What work did the do?What happened when they could no longer work?Generally healthiest men and women, ages if the Nazis needed labor- if no labor is needed all were killed. Given prison clothes, marked with a Star of David, and tattoo on arm with their number.Packed into barracks- just wooden bunks- pillow would be you bowl. Disease was common. Death very common- diet was 200 calories. Nazis wanted survival rate to be just a few weeks- did not want any to escape and tell what was going on.Very hard manual labor- mining, building, farming with little food and very hard work- beaten to work faster- many would have heart attacks after working hours a day. Before leaving for work had to stand at attention until all prisoners were accounted for- dead or alive, could take hours.Shot, lethal injection or sent to gas chambers.
15The Sonderkommando Who were they? What happened if they refused? What were their jobs?Why were they periodically liquidated?Dilemma: Should they tell the Jews what is about to happen to them?Jews picked by the Nazis to work in the extermination process. Given better conditions and better food. If they refused they were shot. Very high suicide rate- sometimes being involved in the death of friends and family.First- one group calmed the Jews arriving on the trains- then used to get the Jews in the proper lines. Used in the changing rooms to calm Jews- tell them everything was going to be OK- also used to cut off hair. After gassing was their jobs to take bodies form gas chamber- gas could be trapped between bodies. Used then to go through bodies, taking gold teeth and look for any hidden valuables. Finally they ran the crematoria- 12 hour shifts- often sleep on the bodies.Every few weeks or months they would be killed off by the SS. They knew the entire death process and would be very damaging if one escaped. The only time their was a Selektion in a pure Extermination camps was when they needed a new batch of Sonderkommando. After the war they would be ostracized by fellow Jews.
16The Medical Experiments Who was picked for the medical experiments?Who was in charge?What were the experiments?What happened after the experiment?Should we use what the Nazis found in these experiments?Those with any physical deformity, also if there were twins- one for experiment and one for control. Also used a lot of Soviet POWs.Josef Mengele- doctor at AuschwitzWide variety- all brutal. Medical- give a person a disease and then track it, or try different techniques to correct it- also check out deformities. Burn tests- how much of a body can be burned before they die, and how to treat burns. Hyperthermia- how long you before death. Military- battlefield surgical techniques- use new weapons on people- drink salt water if shot down over sea- how high can person go without pressure suits. Racial- methods of sterilization- change someone to Aryanism- Chemicals to change eye color- mess with brains. And many more.If you did not die in experiment, or were the control twin- were usually given a lethal injection or sent to gas chambers.
17Results of Holocaust How many Jews were murdered in the Holocaust? What nations were hit the hardest?What is survivor’s guilt?Over six million- Camps and Einsatzgruppen. Millions of others also killed- Gypsies, Poles, etc.Eastern Europe hit hardest- under Nazi occupation longer and Nazis in stricter control. Poland goes from having largest Jewish population to one of the smallest- 90% killed.Why did I survive and others die?
18Nuremberg Trials Who was on trial at the Nuremberg Trials? Why Nuremberg?Why give the Nazis fair court trials?What is a “Crime Against Humanity?”What was the most common defense?Why was Israel formed?Major Nazi officials- those who survived the war. Just the top officials.Held in Nuremberg, Germany. Reason was it was a symbolic city for Nazi Germany- Nuremburg Laws and many torch light rallies.Some wanted them just shot on spot. Allies wanted a real trial to reveal what happened. Judges from each country determined guilt. All defendants were given lawyers. Court proceedings take a long time- many witnesses.Various crimes, but new crime was “Crime Against Humanity”- intentionally murdering people- civilians.“Just Following Orders” no one denied the Holocaust