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Manifest Destiny.

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Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny."— Presentation transcript:

1 Manifest Destiny

2 Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860
New intellectual and religious movements. Social reforms. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America. Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization. Increase in federal power: Marshall Ct. decisions. Increase in American nationalism. Further westward expansion.

3 “Manifest Destiny” First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845. ".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us . It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth." A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.

4 “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872

5 Texas Independence ( )

6 The U.S. in 1820

7 Texas: From Colony to Country
Stephen Austin’s deal with Mexico January 1822: Austin take the “Old 300” to Texas Generous land opportunities encourage American settlers: 20,000 by 1830 By 1835, 30,000 Americans are in Texas

8 Causes of the Texas Revolt
Cultural Conflict Catholic v. Protestant No Due Process in Mexican law No Right to petition Nature of Americans in Texas Frontiersmen Outlaws Resistant to authority

9 Causes of the Texas Revolt
Conflict over Slavery Illegal Immigration Mexico decides to use force

10 Causes of the Texas Revolt
Mexico had 36 changes in the presidency, Santa Anna himself directly ruled eleven times 1835 military coup against his own government led to revolt in Texas Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

11 Texas Declaration of Independence

12 Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836
Sam Houston ( ) Stephen Austin ( )

13 The Republic of Texas

14 Remember the Alamo!

15 Davey Crockett’s Last Stand

16 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo

17 Overland Immigration to the West
Between 1840 and , more than ,000 people made the trek westward.

18 The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869

19 Trails Westward

20 The Doomed Donner Party
April, 1846 – April, 1847

21 The Doomed Donner Party
CANNIBALISM ! ! Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! James Reed & Wife

22 The Mexican War ( )

23 The Election of 1844 Major Issue: Expansionism Whig Party
Annexation of Texas Annexation of Oregon Expansion of Slavery (Texas) Whig Party Nominates Henry Clay: Initially anti-expansion Democratic Party: “All of Texas and Oregon” Nominates James K. Polk First “dark horse” Rejected Van Buren

24 The Election of 1844

25 The Oregon Country: 54˚ 40’ or Fight!
By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land. The joint British-U. S. occupation ended in June 15, 1846 Treaty divided Oregon at 49˚

26 The Oregon Country: 54˚ 40’ or Fight!
“To state the truth at once in its neglected simplicity, we are free to say that were the respective cases and arguments of the two parties, as to all points of history and law, REVERSED – had England all ours and we nothing but hers - our claim to Oregon would still be best and strongest. And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us… The God of Nature has marked it for our own.” John L. O’Sullivan, 1845

27 American Interest in Mexico
The “Usual” It was there Mexico wasn’t using it Mexicans are Catholics Mexicans are… “What has miserable, inefficient Mexico – with her superstition, her burlesque upon freedom, her actual tyranny by the few over the many – what has she to do with the great mission of peopling the new world with a noble race? Be it ours to achieve that mission!” Walt Whitman, 1846

28 Manifest Destiny and Mexico The Democratic Review, 1845
California will, probably, next fall away from...Mexico.... Imbecile and distracted, Mexico never can exert any real governmental authority over such a country.... The Anglo-Saxon foot is already on its borders. Already the advance guard of the irresistible army of Anglo-Saxon emigration has begun to pour down upon it armed with the plow and the rifle, and markings its trail with schools and colleges, courts and representative halls, mills and meeting houses.

29 Manifest Destiny and Mexico The Democratic Review,1845
A population will soon be in actual occupation of California, over which it will be idle for Mexico to dream of dominion... All this without agency of our government, without responsibility of our people- -in natural flow of events, the spontaneous working of principles, and the adaptation of the tendencies and wants of the human race to the elemental circumstances in the midst of which they find themselves placed."

30 Polk’s Dilemma Ran on Expansionist Platform
President Tyler gets joint resolution on Texas annexation – no credit for Polk (Jan.- March, 1845) The Oregon Question: Looks like compromise Must claim some expansionist success….

31 California!

32 The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845
Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border. US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt. US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000. US would buy California for $25,000,000. John Slidell

33 U.S. Declares War on Mexico
Slidell rebuffed in Mexico Polk orders Gen. Zachary Taylor to South Bank of Nueces River (Jan. 13, 1846) – “await events” Nothing happens Polk orders Taylor to North bank of Rio Grande Polk begins writing war message to Congress Taylor’s men attacked on April 24, word reaches Polk May 7 Polk asks Congress for war; Congress declares war on May 13, 1846

34 Polk’s War Message to Congress
Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are now at war. As war exists, and, notwithstanding all our efforts to avoid it, exists by the act of Mexico herself, we are called upon by every consideration of duty and patriotism to vindicate with decision the honor, the rights, and the interests of our country.

35 A Volunteer Army Army Recruitment Poster

36 The Mexican War ( )

37 General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto
“Old Rough and Ready”

38 The Bombardment of Vera Cruz

39 General Scott Enters Mexico City
“Old Fuss and Feathers”

40 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator

41 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico! Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River. Mexico gave the U. S. California and “New Mexico”. U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).

42 The “All Mexico” Movement
Now we ask, whether any man can coolly contemplate the idea of recalling our troops from the [Mexican] territory we at present occupy...and...resign this beautiful country to the custody of the ignorant cowards and profligate ruffians who have ruled it for the last twenty-five years? Why humanity cries out against it. Civilization and Christianity protest against this reflux of the tide of barbarism and anarchy. New York Evening Post, 1848

43 The “All Mexico” Movement
Have not results in Mexico taught the invincibility of American arms?...The North Americans will spread out far beyond their present bounds. They will encroach again and again upon their neighbors. New territories will be planted, declare their independence, and be annexed. We have New Mexico and California! We will have Old Mexico and Cuba! The isthmus cannot arrest--nor even the Saint Lawrence!! Time has all of this in her womb. A hundred states will grow up where now exists but thirty. DeBow's Commercial Review, 1848

44 The “All Mexico” Movement
We have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race. To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes. I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race.... We are anxious to force free government on all; and I see that it has been urged … that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the world, and especially over this continent. It is a great mistake. John C. Calhoun, 1848

45 Results of the Mexican War?
The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease). New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land These new territories would potentially upset the balance of power between North and South. Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President. Manifest Destiny was mostly realized.

46 The Mexican Cession

47 Unresolved Issues & New Opportunities

48 Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)

49 Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men! WHY?
“Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats. Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties. Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories! WHY?

50 The 1848 Presidential Election Results

51 Taylor’s Biography

52 GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848 John A. Sutter

53 California Gold Rush, 1849 49er’s

54 Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s
By 1860, almost 300, people had traveled the Oregon & California Trails to the Pacific coast.

55 Territorial Growth to 1853

56 Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842

57 Westward the Course of Empire Emmanuel Leutze, 1860

58 Expansionist Young America in the 1850s
America’s Attempted Raids – “filibusters” - into Latin America

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