2Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860 New intellectual and religious movements.Social reforms.Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.Re-emergence of a second party system and more political democratization.Increase in federal power: Marshall Ct. decisions.Increase in American nationalism.Further westward expansion.
3“Manifest Destiny”First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us . It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure emerged.
7Texas: From Colony to Country Stephen Austin’s deal with MexicoJanuary 1822: Austin take the “Old 300” to TexasGenerous land opportunities encourage American settlers: 20,000 by 1830By 1835, 30,000 Americans are in Texas
8Causes of the Texas Revolt Cultural ConflictCatholic v. ProtestantNo Due Process in Mexican lawNo Right to petitionNature of Americans in TexasFrontiersmenOutlawsResistant to authority
9Causes of the Texas Revolt Conflict over SlaveryIllegal ImmigrationMexico decides to use force
10Causes of the Texas Revolt Mexico had 36 changes in the presidency,Santa Anna himself directly ruled eleven times1835 military coup against his own government led to revolt in TexasAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna
23The Election of 1844 Major Issue: Expansionism Whig Party Annexation of TexasAnnexation of OregonExpansion of Slavery (Texas)Whig PartyNominates Henry Clay: Initially anti-expansionDemocratic Party: “All of Texas and Oregon”Nominates James K. PolkFirst “dark horse”Rejected Van Buren
25The Oregon Country: 54˚ 40’ or Fight! By the mid-1840s, “Oregon Fever” was spurred on by the promise of free land.The joint British-U. S. occupation ended inJune 15, 1846 Treaty divided Oregon at 49˚
26The Oregon Country: 54˚ 40’ or Fight! “To state the truth at once in its neglected simplicity, we are free to say that were the respective cases and arguments of the two parties, as to all points of history and law, REVERSED – had England all ours and we nothing but hers - our claim to Oregon would still be best and strongest. And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us… The God of Nature has marked it for our own.”John L. O’Sullivan, 1845
27American Interest in Mexico The “Usual”It was thereMexico wasn’t using itMexicans are CatholicsMexicans are…“What has miserable, inefficient Mexico – with her superstition, her burlesque upon freedom, her actual tyranny by the few over the many – what has she to do with the great mission of peopling the new world with a noble race? Be it ours to achieve that mission!”Walt Whitman, 1846
28Manifest Destiny and Mexico The Democratic Review, 1845 California will, probably, next fall away from...Mexico.... Imbecile and distracted, Mexico never can exert any real governmental authority over such a country.... The Anglo-Saxon foot is already on its borders. Already the advance guard of the irresistible army of Anglo-Saxon emigration has begun to pour down upon it armed with the plow and the rifle, and markings its trail with schools and colleges, courts and representative halls, mills and meeting houses.
29Manifest Destiny and Mexico The Democratic Review,1845 A population will soon be in actual occupation of California, over which it will be idle for Mexico to dream of dominion... All this without agency of our government, without responsibility of our people- -in natural flow of events, the spontaneous working of principles, and the adaptation of the tendencies and wants of the human race to the elemental circumstances in the midst of which they find themselves placed."
30Polk’s Dilemma Ran on Expansionist Platform President Tyler gets joint resolution on Texas annexation – no credit for Polk (Jan.- March, 1845)The Oregon Question: Looks like compromiseMust claim some expansionist success….
32The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845 Mexican recognition of the Rio Grande River as the TX-US border.US would forgive American citizens’ claims against the Mexican govt.US would purchase the New Mexico area for $5,000,000.US would buy California for $25,000,000.John Slidell
33U.S. Declares War on Mexico Slidell rebuffed in MexicoPolk orders Gen. Zachary Taylor to South Bank of Nueces River (Jan. 13, 1846) – “await events”Nothing happensPolk orders Taylor to North bank of Rio GrandePolk begins writing war message to CongressTaylor’s men attacked on April 24, word reaches Polk May 7Polk asks Congress for war; Congress declares war on May 13, 1846
34Polk’s War Message to Congress Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are now at war.As war exists, and, notwithstanding all our efforts to avoid it, exists by the act of Mexico herself, we are called upon by every consideration of duty and patriotism to vindicate with decision the honor, the rights, and the interests of our country.
39General Scott Enters Mexico City “Old Fuss and Feathers”
40Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 Nicholas Trist, American Negotiator
41Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848 The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande River.Mexico gave the U. S. California and “New Mexico”.U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the claims of American citizens against Mexico (over $3,500,000).
42The “All Mexico” Movement Now we ask, whether any man can coolly contemplate the idea of recalling our troops from the [Mexican] territory we at present occupy...and...resign this beautiful country to the custody of the ignorant cowards and profligate ruffians who have ruled it for the last twenty-five years? Why humanity cries out against it. Civilization and Christianity protest against this reflux of the tide of barbarism and anarchy.New York Evening Post, 1848
43The “All Mexico” Movement Have not results in Mexico taught the invincibility of American arms?...The North Americans will spread out far beyond their present bounds. They will encroach again and again upon their neighbors. New territories will be planted, declare their independence, and be annexed. We have New Mexico and California! We will have Old Mexico and Cuba! The isthmus cannot arrest--nor even the Saint Lawrence!! Time has all of this in her womb. A hundred states will grow up where now exists but thirty.DeBow's Commercial Review, 1848
44The “All Mexico” Movement We have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race. To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes. I protest against such a union as that! Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race.... We are anxious to force free government on all; and I see that it has been urged … that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the world, and especially over this continent. It is a great mistake.John C. Calhoun, 1848
45Results of the Mexican War? The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+ American lives (mostly of disease).New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics * Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of landThese new territories would potentially upset the balance of power between North and South.Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.Manifest Destiny was mostly realized.
48Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA) Wilmot Proviso, 1846Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.Congr. David Wilmot (D-PA)
49Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men! WHY? “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories!WHY?